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Ain Shams Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 5-1; Jan 2012 DEXAMETHASONE AS ADJUVANT TO CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE
AS ANALGESIC FOR LABOR PAIN
Ahmed Abdalla Mohammed1, Wael Ahmed Ibrahim2, Tamer Fayez Safan1
1Department of Anesthesiology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
2
Department of Anesthesiology, NCI, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate analgesic yield of dexamethasone (DEX) as adjuvant to caudal
ropivacaine (ROP) for labor pain. Patients & Methods: 414 primigravida in their active
phase of the first stage of labour divided randomly into two groups: ROP group received
caudal ropivacaine and DEX group received caudal combination of ropivacaine and
dexamethasone. Assessment included extent of sensory and motor blockade and
requirement of anaesthesia for episiotomy repair and evaluation of post-episiotomy pain
and postpartum complications. Results: Sensory blockade data showed a profound
analgesic effect in both groups with superior effect in DEX group manifested as
significantly earlier onset of analgesia in association with significantly prolonged
duration of analgesia. Caudal block did not disturb process of delivery with non-
significant difference between both groups. Twenty nine parturient had caesarean
section and 385 had vaginal delivery. Episiotomy was repaired without perineal
infiltration anaesthesia. Postpartum perineal pain scores were significantly lower in
DEX group with significantly higher low pain scores and significantly request for
analgesia for episiotomy related pain. Conclusion: Caudal ropivacaine/dexamethasone
provided safe profound labor analgesia without interruption of progress of labor and
spared the need for perineal anaesthesia for episiotomy repair and minimized the need
for subsequent analgesia.

Key-words: Dexamethasone; Ropivacaine; Caudal block; Labor pain
Key messages:
We do believe that such modification provides safe profound labor analgesia. It doesn't interrupt the progress of labor. It also spares the need for perineal anesthesia for episiotomy repair and minimizes the need for subsequent analgesia. Introduction
sense of painful cervical dilatation. In primigravida labor pain is intensified by ignorance of its nature which lowers pain threshold thus intensifying pain sensation and prolongs its duration. These criteria affecting muscle power of the lower limbs to permit mobility. Ropivacaine with its analgesia without abolishing the reflex of motor nerves sparing affinity intensified uterine contraction-cervical dilatation and these effects and its favourable toxicity profile for epidural anaesthesia in adults of perineal muscles. Also, adequate pain with less toxic insult on central nervous system than bupivacaine could potentially be of great benefit for provision of proper Dexamethasone as adjuvant to caudal ropivacaine for labor pain Mohammed, et al. analgesia during childbirth with minimal of obstetrics kasr elaini hospital Cairo university. After doing sample size calculation, the study protocol was additives to be used in combination with and parturient and/or husbands' were fully informed about the study protocol prior to enrollment and those accepted gave their analgesia; Goodman et al. [5] found
written consent to participate. The study intrathecal epinephrine does not prolong enrolled 414 primigravidas with full term the duration of fentanyl or fentanyl with pregnancies and singleton vertex cephalic fetuses, and all of them were in the active phase of the first stage of labor. Parturient with medical diseases, premature rupture cannot be recommended. Lee et al. [6]
of membranes, history of pyuria or fever anaesthetics, or pre-existing neurological Kumar et al. [7] evaluated the analgesic
effect of caudal bupivacaine with or
fetal condition, parturient were randomly, neostigmine and reported that the time to comprised 207 women assigned to receive caudal ropivacaine 0.15% mixed with No additional analgesia was provided for investigated for its analgesic efficacy, labor pain so as to equalize both groups however, up till now still there is some points of controversy concerning the route of administration whether systemic [8] or regional [9], its additive analgesic effects if mechanism and site of its analgesic action position, and after local infiltration of the skin, a caudal block was performed using Touhy needle. After a negative aspiration adjuvant to caudal ropivacaine for labor for blood or CSF, 10 ml of study solution Subjects & Methods:
over a 60-s period. Then, the parturient was returned to a left lateral supine position. Ain Shams Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 5-1; Jan 2012 of labour, 2) the duration of the 2nd stage respiratory rate were determined and were colour of liquor, 6) the mode of delivery compared versus the baseline values. [2] verbal analogue pain scale consisting of: assessed at each uterine contraction using a four-graded verbal analogue scale: 1: no pain relief, 2: a little pain relief, 3: a lot of pain relief, and 4: complete pain relief, request and if pain score at least was 2 since onset of start till onset of regression Results:
of analgesia. [3] Motor blockade of the lower limbs was tested and scored as follows: 0= no motor block means that the significant difference as regards maternal and 1= unable to raise the extended legs measures, heart rate or respiratory rate. but able to move the knee and feet and so Moreover, mean of intrapartum vital data collected: 1) the duration of the 1st stage Table (1): Patients enrollment data
Data are presented as mean±SD, ranges are in parenthesis. Table (2): Mean (±SD) baseline and intrapartum vital signs
Dexamethasone as adjuvant to caudal ropivacaine for labor pain Mohammed, et al. modalities of caudal analgesia. However, significantly earlier onset of analgesia in association with significantly prolonged parturient free of motor blockade (Table duration of analgesia. Ropivacain in the Table (3): Sensory and motor blockade data
Data are presented as mean±SD, ranges are in parenthesis. glucose 5%) was required in 66 parturient groups, (X2=0.249, p>0.05). Time till groups, (X2=0.383, p>0.05). Also, mean parturient. Twenty parturient; 8 (3.8%) in between both groups (F=1.320, p>0.05). light meconium stained liquor with a non- Table (4): Labor data
Data are presented as mean±SD & numbers, percentages are in parenthesis SROM: Spontaneous rupture of membranes Ain Shams Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 5-1; Jan 2012 duration of labor were non-significantly significantly higher frequency of patients vaginal delivery required episiotomy; all with low pain scores (X2=3.968, p<0.05) Table (5): Delivery and postpartum data
Data are presented as mean±SD & numbers, percentages are in parenthesis. injection for provision of analgesia by Li
et al. [13], who investigated the effect of
ropivacaine in combination with fentanyl groups. In 20 patients bleeding was atonic analgesia, and by Khafagy et al. [14] who
conservatively and the 21st had traumatic dexamethasone versus fentanyl to epidural cervical tear) that repaired and bleeding was controlled. No patient required blood and reported significantly prolonged time transfusion for compensation, (Table 5). to first analgesic requirement by 5.2 and 4.8 times in fentanyl and dexamethasone Discussion
with significant reduction in postoperative caudal injection of ropivacaine alone or in previously applied using single epidural Dexamethasone as adjuvant to caudal ropivacaine for labor pain Mohammed, et al. in line with the limited previous studies Thomas & Beevi [18]
epidural administration of dexamethasone throughout the duration of caudal block in Bigat
et
al.
investigated the anesthetic and analgesic effectiveness of adding dexamethasone to previous studies evaluated the analgesic patients received combination of lidocaine concentration; Sitsen et al. [15] compared
and dexamethasone reported significantly surgery and concluded that the addition of epidural pain relief and reported that all surgery improves postoperative analgesia Shrestha et al. [20] found dexamethasone
postoperative analgesia significantly than consumption of sufentanil. Wang et al. [16]
local anesthetic in brachial plexus block in postoperative pain control in combination with fentanyl without motor block and Also, Khafagy et al. [14] found epidural
had almost the same analgesic potency as adverse events. Inoue et al. [17] compared
bupivacaine-fentanyl with opioid-sparing and antiemetic effects. Parrington et al. [9]
and Vieira et al. [21] found the addition of
differences in bolus administration, but with respect to the analgesic efficacy and the potential risk for side effects, PCEA sensory block and reduces opioid use after superior analgesic effect of ropivacaine/ induce or increase the frequency of labor- significantly earlier onset of analgesia in association with significantly prolonged duration of analgesia. These findings are that reported by Bakhamees & Hegazy,
Ain Shams Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 5-1; Jan 2012 [22] who reported a frequency of cesarean serum levels of interleukin-6, one of the respectively, for labor pain and concluded increase the incidence of cesarean section spared the need for perineal anesthesia for episiotomy repair and minimized the need References:
considering episiotomy was mandatory for primigravida giving birth vaginally 1- Sanz-Diaz
local anesthesia infiltration and reduced 2- Rohrbrach A, Viehweg B, Kuhnert
I, Koster A & Konig F (2001): Effect
significantly longer duration of analgesia and significantly lower frequency of prerequisite for rescue analgesia. 3- Zaric D, Nydahl PA, Philipson L,
Samuelsson L, Heierson A, Axelsson
K: The effect of continuous lumber
Ma et al. [23]found in-vitro pretreatment of
significantly attenuated bupivacaine- and lidocaine-induced cell injury, prevented the decline of mitochondrial potential caused by bupivacaine and increased the 4- Knudsen K, Beckman Suurküla M,
Blomberg S, Sjövall J, Edvardsson
N: Central nervous and cardiovascular
cytoprotective effect against bupivacaine- effects of i.v. infusions of ropivacaine, 5- Goodman
Ciliberto CF, Ridley DM, Smiley
RM: Epinephrine is not a useful
Wang
et
al.
[24], found epidural
analgesia, prevented elevation of maternal Dexamethasone as adjuvant to caudal ropivacaine for labor pain Mohammed, et al. 6- Lee WK, Yu KL, Tang CS, Lee LS,
Fang HT, Au CF: Ropivacane 0.1 %
14- Khafagy HF, Refaat AI, El-Sabae
HH, Youssif MA: Efficacy of
7- Kumar, P., Rudra, A., Pan, A.K.,
Acharya, A.: Caudal additives in
15- Sitsen E, van Poorten F, van Alphen
W, Rose L, Dahan A, Stienstra R:
8- Hong JY, Han SW, Kim WO, Kim
EJ, Kil HK: Effect of dexamethasone
16- Wang SC, Chang YY, Chang KY,
Hu JS, Chan KH, Tsou MY:
9- Parrington SJ, O'Donnell D, Chan
VW et al: Dexamethasone added to
10- Al-Qudah M, Rashdan Y: Role of
17- Inoue S, Kawakami T, Seo N: A
11- Thangaswamy CR, Rewari V,
18- Thomas S, Beevi S: Epidural
Chandralekha A: Dexamethasone
19- Bigat Z, Boztug N, Hadimioglu N,
Cete N, Coskunfirat N, Ertok E:
12- Scott J, Huskinsson EC: Graphic
randomized, controlled clinical study. Anesth Analg. 2006; 102(2):605-9. 13- Li Q, Li CX, Liu Y, Xue WN, Chen
TM: Influence of epidural ropivacaine
20- Shrestha
Maharjan
Shrestha S et al : Comparative study
Ain Shams Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 5-1; Jan 2012 23- Ma R, Wang X, Lu C et al:
21- Vieira PA, Pulai I, Tsao GC,
Manikantan P, Keller B, Connelly
NR: Dexamethasone with bupivacaine
increases duration of analgesia in
24- Wang LZ, Hu XX, Liu X, Qian P,
Ge JM, Tang BL: Influence of
temperature and serum cytokine concentration after labor epidural 22- Bakhamees H, Hegazy E: Does
caesarean delivery or instrumental labor in Saudi populations? Middle East J Anesthesiol. 2007; 19(3):693-704.

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