Prevention of running injuries

 Introduction  Warm-up and Stretching  Running Injuries  Causes - foot mechanics, shoes, biomechanics of  Common running injuries  Prevention and treatment   Important for increasing body temp., stretching ligaments and muscles, and exciting the nervous system.   General y, a warm-up should be related to the activity   It is advised that static prolonged stretching - although important, should be left to the end of your run in the cool-down phase.   Static prolonged stretching in a warm-up wil actual y dampen the nervous system therefore affecting agility, speed, co-ordination and subsequent risk of injury   Therefore, it is advised to perform a “dynamic warm-up”   Although, for those less flexible, starting with some prolonged stretching midway through the warm-up wil   List of recommended movements in the “dynamic warm-   Shoulder circles   Body twists   Side bends   Jumping jacks   Walking knee tucks   Kick backs on the spot   Jogging on the spot  Proper footwear necessary to maintain correct posture of foot and minimize external stress - over pronation and  Over-pronation is excessive flattening of the arch through the mid to late portion of the walking cycle  Over-pronation leads to decreased running efficiency and increased strain on the foot, knee, hip, and back  Supination relates to a higher arch and resultant increased load to the outside of the foot  Improper foot mechanics can be corrected via exercise,  Important to identify your foot type and use appropriate shoes in order to minimize injury risk   Motion control - excessive over-pronators   Stability - some degree of over-pronation   Cushioning - supinated foot  Everyone has a different foot, make sure one of the   Foot, ankle, knee, hip, and pelvis al need to be working properly to minimize strain and prevent injury   A fault in any of the biomechanics causes an altered running pattern and undue stress on the surrounding   Most common biomechanical fault in the body is the   This results in over-pronation of the foot, internal twisting of the knee and hip, and associated rotations of the   Altered biomechanics causes muscle imbalances and  Muscle imbalance is when specific muscles differ in strength or flexibility based on their  Due to altered mechanics where specific  Over time this imbalance creates wear and tear to joints and ligaments and causes injury,  Identifying altered biomechanics important for  Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome  Patel o-femoral Syndrome  Shin Splints  Plantar Fasciitis  Iliotibial Band(ITB) Friction Syndrome  A.K.A. - “Runner’s Knee”  Inflammation of the ITB at the outside of the knee  Caused by altered biomechanics of the hip and knee  Typical y painful mid way through the run and  Sharp pain local y to the outside of the knee with  Inflammation of the kneecap undersurface due to  Poor tracking of the kneecap results in abnormal  Resultant pain around kneecap with repetitive weightbearing activities (I.e. running, walking, stairs, squatting)  Better with rest from activity and ice  Inflammation of the Tibialis Posterior muscle where it  Abnormal foot mechanics (over-pronation) main  Pain along the inner part of the shin with possible  Early treatment with ice massage and rest to  Inflammation of the plantar fascia of the foot at the  Increased tension on the plantar fascia causes it to pul at the heel resulting in inflammation and possible tearing  Altered foot mechanics, poor footwear, tight muscles, and training errors al possible causes of injury  Worse in morning(first steps out of bed), slowly Running Injuries - Prevention and Treatment  Early Warning Signs of Injury  Minor aches and pains persistent after run  Soft tissue or joint swel ing  Lasting tenderness on palpation days after run  Loss of joint range of motion or stride  RICE - rest, ice, compress, elevation  Seek professional assistance  Important to identify the cause therefore gait analysis or biomechanical evaluation may be necessary  Here is a list of things to do for prevention:  Keep a daily log  Proper sleep for tissue repair, rest from running when  Balanced diet - consult your coach or dietician to ensure you are meeting the demands of your training  Dynamic warm-up prior to run  Static stretching in cool down phase  Cross training and muscle strengthening to balance  Proper footwear - consult with the experts at the  Strong glute muscles are important for biomechanical balance of the hip and knee  During running cycle, glutes responsible for external y rotating leg and keeping the leg  Consists of three muscles: Gluteus Maximus,  Problematic in people due to daily postures from sitting - muscle becomes de-activated and weak  One Simple Exercise to Train the Glute Muscles:  Standing - hold arms out in front of body at shoulder level with smal weight in hands (soup can or water bottle). Feet shoulder width apart  Slight forward tilt of pelvis, tighten core muscles. Slowly bend at hips and lower body as if sitting into chair. Lower down far enough where proper mechanics are kept.  Ensure weight of body is through heels of feet on the way  Make sure knees are behind toes and not drifting inwards.  Repeat as many as possible with good form! Feel the  Proper footwear  Adequate training program and coaching  Cross training and strengthening for injury prevention (I.e. biking, swimming, wt training)  Get a Physiotherapist to assess biomechanics and address any imbalances that may exist  Common cause of running injuries is improper


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