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Oral Paste for Horses and Foals
Federal (USA) law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.
Chemical name: 5-Methoxy-2-[[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl) methyl]sulfinyl]-1 H-
benzimidazole. Empirical formula: C17H19N3O3S. Molecular weight: 345.42. Structural formula:
® (omeprazole) Paste for horses contains 37% w/w omeprazole and is available in an adjustable-dose
syringe. Each syringe contains 2.28 g of omeprazole. Syringes are calibrated according to body weight and are
available in boxes of 7 units or 72 units.
Store at 68°F - 77° (20-25°C). Excursions between 59°F - 86°F (15-30°C) are permitted.
For treatment and prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses and foals 4 weeks of age and older.
For treatment of gastric ulcers, GASTROGARD
Paste should be administered orally once-a-day for 4 weeks at the recommended dosage of 1.8 mg omeprazole/lb body weight (4 mg/kg). For the prevention of recurrence of ulcers,
continue treatment for at least an additional 4 weeks by administering GASTROGARD
Paste at the recommended
daily maintenance dose of 0.9 mg/lb (2 mg/kg).
Directions for Use
Paste for horses is recommended for use in horses and foals 4 weeks of age and older. The contents
of one syringe will dose a 1250 lb (568 kg) horse at the rate of 1.8 mg omeprazole/lb body weight (4 mg/kg). For
treatment of gastric ulcers, each weight marking on the syringe plunger will deliver sufficient omeprazole to treat 250 lb (114 kg) body weight. For prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers, each weight marking will deliver sufficient
omeprazole to dose 500 lb (227 kg) body weight.
To deliver GASTROGARD
Paste at the treatment dose rate of 1.8 mg omeprazole/lb body weight (4 mg/kg), set the syringe plunger to the appropriate weight marking according to the horse's weight in pounds.
To deliver GASTROGARD
Paste at the dose rate of 0.9 mg/lb (2 mg/kg) to prevent recurrence of ulcers, set the syringe plunger to the weight marking corresponding to half of the horse's weight in pounds.
To set the syringe plunger, unlock the knurled ring by rotating it 1/4 turn. Slide the knurled ring along the plunger shaft
so that the side nearest the barrel is at the appropriate notch. Rotate the plunger ring 1/4 turn to lock it in place and ensure it is locked. Make sure the horse's mouth contains no feed. Remove the cover from the tip of the syringe, and
insert the syringe into the horse's mouth at the interdental space. Depress the plunger until stopped by the knurled ring.
The dose should be deposited on the back of the tongue or deep into the cheek pouch. Care should be taken to ensure
that the horse consumes the complete dose. Treated animals should be observed briefly after administration to ensure
that part of the dose is not lost or rejected. If any of the dose is lost, redosing is recommended.
If, after dosing, the syringe is not completely empty, it may be reused on following days until emptied. Replace the cap
Do not use in horses intended for human consumption.
Keep this and all drugs out of the reach of children. In
case of ingestion, contact a physician. Physicians may contact a poison control center for advice concerning accidental
In efficacy trials, when the drug was administered at 1.8 mg omeprazole/lb (4 mg/kg) body weight daily for 28 days and
0.9 mg omeprazole/lb (2 mg/kg) body weight daily for 30 additional days, no adverse reactions were observed.
The safety of GASTROGARD
Paste has not been determined in pregnant or lactating mares.
Mechanism of Action:
Omeprazole is a gastric acid pump inhibitor that regulates the final step in hydrogen ion
production and blocks gastric acid secretion regardless of the stimulus. Omeprazole irreversibly binds to the gastric
parietal cell's H+, K+ ATPase enzyme which pumps hydrogen ions into the lumen of the stomach in exchange for potassium ions. Since omeprazole accumulates in the cell cannaliculi and is irreversibly bound to the effect site, the
plasma concentration at steady state is not directly related to the amount that is bound to the enzyme. The relationship
between omeprazole action and plasma concentration is a function of the rate-limiting process of H+, K+ ATPase
activity/turnover. Once all of the enzyme becomes bound, acid secretion resumes only after new H+, K+ ATPase is synthesized in the parietal cell (i.e., the rate of new enzyme synthesis exceeds the rate of inhibition).
In a study of pharmacodynamic effects using horses with gastric cannulae, secretion of gastric
acid was inhibited in horses given 4 mg omeprazole/kg/day. After the expected maximum suppression of gastric acid
secretion was reached (5 days), the actual secretion of gastric acid was reduced by 99%, 95% and 90% at 8, 16, and 24 hours, respectively.
In a pharmacokinetic study involving thirteen healthy, mixed breed horses (8 female, 5 male)
receiving multiple doses of omeprazole paste (1.8 mg/lb once daily for fifteen days) in either a fed or fasted state, there was no evidence of drug accumulation in the plasma when comparing the extent of systemic exposure (AUC0-∞). When
comparing the individual bioavailability data (AUC0-∞, Cmax, and Tmax measurements) across the study days, there
was great inter- and intrasubject variability in the rate and extent of product absorption. Also, the extent of omeprazole
absorption in horses was reduced by approximately 67% in the presence of food. This is evidenced by the observation that the mean (AUC0-∞) values measured during the fifth day of omeprazole therapy when the animals were fasted for
24 hours was approximately three times greater than the AUC estimated after the first and fifteenth doses when the
horses were fed hay ad libitum and sweet feed (grain) twice daily. Prandial status did not affect the rate of drug
elimination. The terminal half-life estimates (N=38) ranged from approximately one-half to eight hours.
Dose Confirmation: GASTROGARD
® (omeprazole) Paste, administered to provide omeprazole at 1.8 mg/lb (4 mg/kg)
daily for 28 days, effectively healed or reduced the severity of gastric ulcers in 92% of omeprazole-treated horses. In comparison, 32% of controls exhibited healed or less severe ulcers. Horses enrolled in this study were healthy animals
confirmed to have gastric ulcers by gastroscopy. Subsequent daily administration of GASTROGARD
Paste to provide
omeprazole at 0.9 mg/lb (2 mg/kg) for 30 days prevented recurrence of gastric ulcers in 84% of treated horses,
whereas ulcers recurred or became more severe were in horses removed from omeprazole treatment.
Clinical Field Trials: GASTROGARD
Paste administered at 1.8 mg/lb (4 mg/kg) daily for 28 days healed or reduced
severity of gastric ulcers in 99% of omeprazole-treated horses. In comparison, 32.4% of control horses had healed
ulcers or ulcers which were reduced in severity. These trials included horses of various breeds and under different management conditions, and included horses in race or show training, pleasure horses, and foals as young as one
month. Horses enrolled in the efficacy trials were healthy animals confirmed to have gastric ulcers by gastroscopy. In
these field trials, horses readily accepted GASTROGARD
Paste. There were no drug related adverse reactions. In the
clinical trials, GASTROGARD
Paste was used concomitantly with other therapies, which included: anthelmintics, antibiotics, non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, diuretics, tranquilizers and vaccines.
Diagnostic and Management Considerations:
The following clinical signs may be associated with gastric ulceration
in adult horses: inappetence or decreased appetite, recurrent colic, intermittent loose stools or chronic diarrhea, poor hair coat, poor body condition, or poor performance. Clinical signs in foals may include: bruxism (grinding of teeth),
excess salivation, colic, cranial abdominal tenderness, anorexia, diarrhea, sternal recumbency or weakness. A more
accurate diagnosis of gastric ulceration in horses and foals may be made if ulcers are visualized directly by endoscopic
examination of the gastric mucosa. Gastric ulcers may recur in horses if therapy to prevent recurrence is not administered after the initial treatment is
completed. Use GASTROGARD
Paste at 0.9 mg omeprazole/lb body weight (2 mg/kg) for control of gastric ulcers
following treatment. The safety of administration of GASTROGARD
Paste for longer than 91 days has not been determined.
Maximal acid suppression occurs after three to five days of treatment with omeprazole.
Paste was well tolerated in the following controlled efficacy and safety studies.
In field trials involving 139 horses, including foals as young as one month of age, no adverse reactions
attributable to omeprazole treatment were noted.
In a placebo controlled adult horse safety study, horses received 20 mg/kg/day omeprazole (5x the
recommended dose) for 90 days. No treatment related adverse effects were observed.
In a placebo controlled tolerance study, adult horses were treated with GASTROGARD
Paste at a dosage of
40 mg/kg/day (10x the recommended dose) for 21 days. No treatment related adverse effects were
A placebo controlled foal safety study evaluated the safety of omeprazole at doses of 4, 12 or 20 mg/kg (1, 3,
or 5x) once daily for 91 days. Foals ranged in age from 66 to 110 days at study initiation. Gamma
glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were significantly elevated in horses treated at exaggerated doses of 20 mg/kg (5x the recommended dose). Mean stomach to body weight ratio was higher for foals in the 3x and 5x
groups than for controls; however, no abnormalities of the stomach were evident on histological examination.
In a male reproductive safety study, 10 stallions received GASTROGARD
Paste at 12 mg/kg/day (3x the recommended dose) for 70 days. No treatment related adverse effects on semen quality or breeding behavior were
observed. A safety study in breeding mares has not been conducted.
For More Information
Please call 1-888-637-4251 and please visit our web site at www.gastrogard.com
is a registered trademark of the AstraZeneca Group of Companies.
Marketed by: Merial Limited, Duluth, GA 30096-4640
Merial Limited, a company limited by shares registered in England and Wales (registered number 3332751) with a registered office at PO Box 327, Sandringham House, Sandringham Avenue, Harlow Business Park, Harlow, Essex
CM19 5QA, England, and domesticated in Delaware, USA as Merial LLC.
Copyright 2005 Merial Limited. All rights reserved.
Math 146: Exercises on hypothesis tests about proportions(1) State the null and alternative hypotheses. For tests about proportions, the possible(2) Verify necessary data conditions, and if they are met, summarize the data into anappropriate test statistic. For tests about proportions:– Check that the sample is random, or can be considered random in context. Thismeans the individual respons
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