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Guidelines for treatment of malaria in the united states (based on drugs currently available for use in the united states)

Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria in the United States
(Based on drugs currently available for use in the United States)
CDC Malaria Hotline: (770) 488-7788 Monday-Friday 8 am to 4:30 pm EST
488-7100 after hours, weekends and holidays (ask to page the malaria person on-call)
Clinical Diagnosis/
Region Infection Acquired
Recommended Drug and Adult Dose1,8
Recommended Drug and Pediatric Dose1,8
Plasmodium species
Pediatric dose should NEVER exceed adult dose
Uncomplicated malaria/
Chloroquine-sensitive
Chloroquine phosphate (Aralen™ and generics)
Chloroquine phosphate (Aralen™ and generics)
P. falciparum or
(Central America west of Panama Canal; Haiti; 600 mg base (=1,000 mg salt) po immediately, followed by 10 mg base/kg po immediately, followed by 5 mg the Dominican Republic; and most of the Middle 300 mg base (=500 mg salt) po at 6, 24, and 48 hours Total dose: 1,500 mg base (=2,500 mg salt) 2nd line alternative for treatment:
2nd line alternative for treatment:
Hydroxychloroquine (PlaquenilTM and generics)
Hydroxychloroquine (PlaquenilTM and generics)
620 mg base (=800 mg salt) po immediately, followed by 10 mg base/kg po immediately, followed by 5 mg vivax or P ovale: see P. vivax 310 mg base (=400 mg salt) po at 6, 24, and 48 hours Total dose: 1,550 mg base (=2,000 mg salt) Chloroquine-resistant or unknown resistance
A. Quinine sulf of the following:
A. Quinine sulfate2 plus one of the following:
(All malarious regions except those specified as Doxycycline, Tetracycline, or Clindamycin
Doxycycline Tetracycline4 or Clindamycin
chloroquine-sensitive listed in the box above. Quinine sulfate: 542 mg base
Quinine sulfate: 8.3 mg base/kg (=10 mg salt/kg) po
Middle Eastern countries with chloroquine- resistant P. falciparum include Iran, Oman, Doxycycline: 100 mg po bid x 7 days
Doxycycline: 2.2 mg/kg po every 12 hours x 7 days
Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Of note, infections Tetracycline: 250 mg po qid x 7 days
Tetracycline: 25 mg/kg/day po divided qid x 7 days
acquired in the Newly Independent States of the Clindamycin: 20 mg base/kg/day po divided tid x 7 days
Clindamycin: 20 mg base/kg/day po divided tid x 7
former Soviet Union and Korea to date have been uniformly caused by P. vivax and should B. Atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone™)
B. Atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone™)5
therefore be treated as chloroquine-sensitive Adult tab = 250 mg atovaquone/ 100 mg proguanil
Adult tab = 250 mg atovaquone/ 100 mg proguanil
Peds tab = 62.5 mg atovaquone/ 25 mg proguanil
9-10kg: 3 peds tabs po qd x 3 d 11-20kg: 1adult tab po qd x 3 d 21-30kg: 2 adult tabs po qd x 3d 31-40kg: 3 adult tabs po qd x 3d > 40 kg: 4 adult tabs po qd x 3d C. Mefloquine (Lariam™ and generics
C. Mefloquine (Lariam™ and generics)6
684 mg base (=750 mg salt) po as initial dose, followed by 13.7 mg base/kg (=15 mg salt/kg) po as initial dose, 456 mg base (=500 mg salt) po given 6-12 hours after followed by 9.1 mg base/kg (=10 mg salt/kg) po given Uncomplicated malaria/
All regions
Chloroquine phosphate: Treatment as above
Chloroquine phosphate: Treatment as above
2nd line alternative for treatment:
2nd line alternative for treatment:
Hydroxychloroquine: Treatment as above
Hydroxychloroquine: Treatment as above
1 NOTE: There are three options (A, B, or C) available for treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Options A and B are equally recommended. Because of a higher rate of severe neuropsychiatric reactions seen at treatment doses, we do not recommend option C (mefloquine) unless options A and B cannot be used. For option A, because there is more data on the efficacy of quinine in combination with doxycycline or tetracycline, these treatment combinations are generally preferred to quinine in combination with clindamycin. 2 For infections acquired in Southeast Asia, quinine treatment should continue for 7 days. For infections acquired in Africa and South America, quinine treatment should continue for 3 days. 3 US manufactured quinine sulfate capsule is in a 324mg dosage; therefore 2 capsules should be sufficient for adult dosing 4 Doxycycline and tetracycline are not indicated for use in children less than 8 years old. For children less than 8 years old with chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum, quinine (given alone for 7 days or given in combination with clindamycin) and atovaquone-proguanil are recommended treatment options; mefloquine can be considered if no other options are available. For children less than 8 years old with chloroquine-resistant P. vivax, quinine (given alone for 7 days) or mefloquine are recommended treatment options. If none of these treatment options are available or are not being tolerated and if the treatment benefits outweigh the risks, doxycycline or tetracycline may be given to children less than 8 years old. 5 Give atovaquone-proguanil with food. If patient vomits within 30 minutes of taking a dose, then they should repeat the dose. 6 Treatment with mefloquine is not recommended in persons who have acquired infections from the Southeast Asian region of Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia due to resistant strains. Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria in the United States
(Based on drugs currently available for use in the United States)
CDC Malaria Hotline: (770) 488-7788 Monday-Friday 8 am to 4:30 pm EST
488-7100 after hours, weekends and holidays (ask to page the malaria person on-call)
Clinical Diagnosis/
Region Infection Acquired
Recommended Drug and Adult Dose1,8
Recommended Drug and Pediatric Dose1,8
Plasmodium species
Pediatric dose should NEVER exceed adult dose
Uncomplicated malaria/
All regions8
Chloroquine phosphate plus Primaquine phosp
Chloroquine phosphate plus Primaquine phosphate7
P. vivax or
Note: for suspected chloroquine-resistant P. Chloroquine phosphate: Treatment as above
Chloroquine phosphate: Treatment as above
P. ovale
Primaquine phosphate: 30 mg base po qd x 14 days
Primaquine phosphate: 0.5 mg base/kg po qd x 14
2nd line alternative for treatment:
Hydroxychloroquine plus Primaquine phosphate7
2nd line alternative for treatment:
Hydroxychloroquine: Treatment as above
Hydroxychloroquine plus Primaquine phosphate7
Primaquine phosphate: 30 mg base po qd x 14 days
Hydroxychloroquine: Treatment as above
Primaquine phosphate: 30 mg base po qd x 14 days
Uncomplicated malaria/
Chloroquine-resistant
A. Quinine sulfate2 plus either Doxycycline or
A. Quinine sulfate2 plus either Doxycycline4 or
P. vivax
Tetracycline plus Primaquine phosphate7
Tetracycline4 plus Primaquine phosphate7
Quinine sulfate: Treatment as above
Quinine sulfate: Treatment as above
Doxycycline or Tetracycline: Treatment as above
Doxycycline or Tetracycline: Treatment as above
Primaquine phosphate: Treatment as above
Primaquine phosphate: Treatment as above
B. Mefloquine plus Primaquine phosphate7
B. Mefloquine plus Primaquine phosphate7
Mefloquine: Treatment as above
Mefloquine: Treatment as above
Primaquine phosphate: Treatment as above
Primaquine phosphate: Treatment as above
Uncomplicated malaria:
Chloroquine-sensitive12
Chloroquine phosphate: Treatment as above
alternatives for pregnant
(see uncomplicated malaria sections above for 2nd line alternative for treatment:
chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium species by Hydroxychloroquine: Treatment as above
region)
Chloroquine resistant P. falciparum9,10,11

Quinine sulfate2 plus Clindamycin
(see uncomplicated malaria sections above for Quinine sulfate: Treatment as above
regions with known chloroquine resistant P.
Clindamycin: Treatment as above
falciparum)
Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax9,10,11,12

Quinine sulfate
(see uncomplicated malaria sections above for Quinine sulfate: 650 mg3 salt po tid x 7 days
7 Primaquine is used to eradicate any hypnozoite forms that may remain dormant in the liver, and thus prevent relapses, in P. vivax and P. ovale infections. Because primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in persons with G6PD deficiency, patients must be screened for G6PD deficiency prior to starting treatment with primaquine. For persons with borderline G6PD deficiency or as an alternate to the above regimen, primaquine may be given 45 mg orally one time per week for 8 weeks; consultation with an expert in infectious disease and/or tropical medicine is advised if this alternative regimen is considered in G6PD-deficient persons. Primaquine must not be used during pregnancy. 8 NOTE: There are two options (A or B) available for treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by chloroquine-resistant P. vivax. High treatment failure rates due to chloroquine-resistant P. vivax have been well documented in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Rare case reports of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax have also been documented in Burma (Myanmar), India, and Central and South America. Persons acquiring P. vivax infections outside of Papua New Guinea or Indonesia should be started on chloroquine. If the patient does not respond, the treatment should be changed to a chloroquine-resistant P. vivax regimen and CDC should be notified (Malaria Hotline number listed above). For treatment of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax infections, options A and B are equally recommended. 9 For pregnant women diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria caused by chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum or chloroquine-resistant P. vivax infection, treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is generally not indicated. However, doxycycline or tetracycline may be used in combination with quinine (as recommended for non-pregnant adults) if other treatment options are not available or are not being tolerated, and the benefit is judged to outweigh the risks. 10 Because there are no adequate, well-controlled studies of atovaquone and/or proguanil hydrochloride in pregnant women, atovaquone-proguanil is generally not recommended for use in pregnant women. For pregnant women diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria caused by chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum infection, atovaquone-proguanil may be used if other treatment options are not available or are not being tolerated, and if the potential benefit is judged to outweigh the potential risks. There are no data on the efficacy of atovaquone-proguanil in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax infections. 11 Because of a possible association with mefloquine treatment during pregnancy and an increase in stillbirths, mefloquine is generally not recommended for treatment in pregnant women. However, mefloquine may be used if it is the only treatment option available and if the potential benefit is judged to outweigh the potential risks. 12 For P. vivax and P. ovale infections, primaquine phosphate for radical treatment of hypnozoites should not be given during pregnancy. Pregnant patients with P. vivax and P. ovale infections should be maintained on chloroquine prophylaxis for the duration of their pregnancy. The chemoprophylactic dose of chloroquine phosphate is 300 mg base (=500 mg salt) orally once per week. After delivery, pregnant patients who do not have G6PD deficiency should be treated with primaquine. Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria in the United States
(Based on drugs currently available for use in the United States)
CDC Malaria Hotline: (770) 488-7788 Monday-Friday 8 am to 4:30 pm EST
488-7100 after hours, weekends and holidays (ask to page the malaria person on-call)
regions with chloroquine-resistant P. vivax)
Severe mala
All regions
Quinidine gluconate14 plus one of the following:
Quinidine gluconate14 plus one of the following:
Doxycycline, Tetracycline, or Clindamycin
Doxycycline4, Tetracycline4, or Clindamycin
Quinidine gluconate: 6.25 mg base/kg (=10 mg
Quinidine gluconate: Same mg/kg dosing and
salt/kg) loading dose IV over 1-2 hrs, then 0.0125 mg base/kg/min (=0.02 mg salt/kg/min) continuous infusion Doxycycline: Treatment as above. If patient not able
for at least 24 hours. An alternative regimen is 15 mg to take oral medication, may give IV. For children <45 base/kg (=24 mg salt/kg) loading dose IV infused over 4 hours, followed by 7.5 mg base/kg (=12 mg salt/kg) 2.2 mg/kg IV every 12 hours and then switch to oral infused over 4 hours every 8 hours, starting 8 hours after doxycycline (dose as above) as soon as patient can take the loading dose (see package insert). Once parasite oral medication. For children >45 kg, use same dosing density <1% and patient can take oral medication, as for adults. For IV use, avoid rapid administration. complete treatment with oral quinine, dose as above. Quinidine/quinine course = 7 days in Southeast Asia; = 3 Tetracycline: Treatment as above
Clindamycin: Treatment as above. If patient not
Doxycycline: Treatment as above. If patient not able to
able to take oral medication, give 10 mg base/kg loading take oral medication, give 100 mg IV every 12 hours and dose IV followed by 5 mg base/kg IV every 8 hours. then switch to oral doxycycline (as above) as soon as Switch to oral clindamycin (oral dose as above) as soon patient can take oral medication. For IV use, avoid rapid as patient can take oral medication. For IV use, avoid administration. Treatment course = 7 days.
rapid administration. Treatment course = 7 days. Tetracycline: Treatment as above
Clindamycin: Treatment as above. If patient not able
to take oral medication, give 10 mg base/kg loading dose
IV followed by 5 mg base/kg IV every 8 hours. Switch to
oral clindamycin (oral dose as above) as soon as patient
can take oral medication. For IV use, avoid rapid
administration. Treatment course = 7 days.
13 Because of a possible association with mefloquine treatment during pregnancy and an increase in stillbirths, mefloquine is generally not recommended for treatment in pregnant women. However, mefloquine may be used if it is the only treatment option available and if the potential benefit is judged to outweigh the potential risks. 13 For P. vivax and P. ovale infections, primaquine phosphate for radical treatment of hypnozoites should not be given during pregnancy. Pregnant patients with P. vivax and P. ovale infections should be maintained on chloroquine prophylaxis for the duration of their pregnancy. The chemoprophylactic dose of chloroquine phosphate is 300 mg base (=500 mg salt) orally once per week. After delivery, pregnant patients who do not have G6PD deficiency should be treated with primaquine.13 Persons with a positive blood smear OR history of recent possible exposure and no other recognized pathology who have one or more of the following clinical criteria (impaired consciousness/coma, severe normocytic anemia, renal failure, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, circulatory shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, spontaneous bleeding, acidosis, hemoglobinuria, jaundice, repeated generalized convulsions, and/or parasitemia of > 5%) are considered to have manifestations of more severe disease. Severe malaria is practically always due to P. falciparum. 14 Patients diagnosed with severe malaria should be treated aggressively with parenteral antimalarial therapy. Treatment with IV quinidine should be initiated as soon as possible after the diagnosis has been made. Patients with severe malaria should be given an intravenous loading dose of quinidine unless they have received more than 40 mg/kg of quinine in the preceding 48 hours or if they have received mefloquine within the preceding 12 hours. Consultation with a cardiologist and a physician with experience treating malaria is advised when treating malaria patients with quinidine. During administration of quinidine, blood pressure monitoring (for hypotension) and cardiac monitoring (for widening of the QRS complex and/or lengthening of the QTc interval) should be monitored continuously and blood glucose (for hypoglycemia) should be monitored periodically. Cardiac complications, if severe, may warrant temporary discontinuation of the drug or slowing of the intravenous infusion. 15 Consider exchange transfusion if the parasite density (i.e. parasitemia) is > 10% OR if the patient has altered mental status, non-volume overload pulmonary edema, or renal complications. The parasite density can be estimated by examining a monolayer of red blood cells (RBCs) on the thin smear under oil immersion magnification. The slide should be examined where the RBCs are more or less touching (approximately 400 RBCs per field). The parasite density can then be estimated from the percentage of infected RBCs and should be monitored every 12 hours. Exchange transfusion should be continued until the parasite density is <1% (usually requires 8-10 units). IV quinidine administration should not be delayed for an exchange transfusion and can be given concurrently throughout the exchange transfusion. 16 Pregnant women diagnosed with severe malaria should be treated aggressively with parenteral antimalarial therapy.

Source: http://www.kairos2.com/cdc-malaria-rx.pdf

research2.wayne.edu

Release Date: July 28, 2008 Contact : Cheryl Contact: New combination of drug therapies found to significantly lower blood pressure in blacks Wayne State University researcher presented findings to the National Medical Association DETROIT— African-Americans have a higher risk of developing high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, than o

Efforts to save an endangered species -echinacea laevigata (smooth coneflower)

Efforts to Save an Endangered Species - Echinacea laevigata (Smooth Coneflower) Department of Biological SciencesClemson UniversityUSDA Forest ServiceDepartment of Forest ResourcesClemson UniversityThe South Carolina Botanical Garden contains living collections of several rare plants. Amongthese, Echinacea laevigafa (Boynton and Beadle) Blake is federally listed as endangered. TheGarden

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