Frame Formation and Frame Transition in Korean Anti-Prostitute Movements from 1970 to 2005 Lee, Dong Ju
M.A. Dept. of Sociology, Korea University This article analyzes the process of frame formation and frame transition in Korean anti-prostitute movements. From 1970s to 2005, Korean anti-prostitute movements had developed distinctive frames and had used the different strategies at each period. Frames of the movements were categorized into 4 different groups. The first frame was the moral opposition frame on prostitution. Centering around the Korea Church Women United, an association of Christian bodies, it encountered the ethics of Christianity. Anti-prostitute movements of this period formed the frame that prostitution was the side effect of Capitalism. They focused on criticism about government tourism policies for the reason that government facilitated sex industry to earn foreign exchange with the expression of nationalism. The second frame was the human rights frame. In this period, activists working in shelters for sex workers regarded prostitution as a severe violation of human rights due to socioeconomic problems. They recognized the problem of the Anti-Prostitution law while helping sex workers to escape from the sex industry and insisted on the revision of the law. During the third period, the frame of the anti-prostitute movement was specified as sexual violation by the coalition of the feminist movement organizations. Under this frame, prostitution issues were understood as the conspiracy of the 154 Korean Journal of Social Issues Vol.8 No.1 April 2008 patriarchal state and male chauvinists, therefore considering sex workers as the victims of the patriarchal society. Moreover, the strengthened ability of the feminist movement organizations made it possible to take the advantage of the changes in the political opportunity structure and to lead the government to enact the New Anti-Prostitution Law. However, this new law also created the opportunity for organizing sex workers who were opposed to it. In this fourth period, frame dispute arose between the sexual violation frame and the sex worker's labor right frame. This frame dispute was a consequence of the limitations of the master frame of the earlier anti-prostitute movements, i.e., the violation of the sexual autonomy. In conclusion, social movement frames can be used as the key strategy of organizing movements and play an important role in interpreting the opportunities and constrains of the movements and persuading bystanders to support the movements. However, any contradiction within movement frames will bring about frame disputes, and consequently negative results to the movements by damaging the legitimacy of the movements. Key words : anti-prostitution movements, anti-prostitution law, Fabulous Single and Doenjangnyo: The Politics of Mo, Hyun Joo
M.A. Dept. of Sociology, Yonsei University What we can see in the Korean society from early 2000 is the advent of various social changes centered on women in their twenties and thirties. As we can see from increase in unmarried and late-marrying women and low birth rate, consequent changes created by young women are being noticed. The big issue at the same time is patterns of consumption among single women in their twenties and thirties. While spot-lighted as leading consumers in the market sector with nicknames like ‘Fabulous single' like those in ‘Sex and the City,' or ‘Gold Miss' with annual incomes of 40 million won or more, they are oppressed by public discourse for their overconsumption and being criticized as the target of ‘Doenjangnyeo' dispute. In this paper, I focus on how women in their twenties and thirties, particularly those single career women with buying power, emerged as the main body of consumption and study their consumption patterns and their inherent cultural-political meanings through in-depth interviews.
From these interviews I found that these women developed various strategies to cope with their current situations by practicing their power of consumption and knew the scope of power that money-making and cultivating outward appearances have in the consumer society system. Instead of isolating them from production 156 Korean Journal of Social Issues Vol.8 No.1 April 2008 and work places, the modern society has turned women into consumerswhile at the same time engaging in male-oriented public discourse that object totheir consumption in this society. In depth and wide range discussions will take us beyond the dichotomous and disuniting phenomena of current public discourse where the ‘Fabulous single' and ‘Doenjangnyeo' arguments coexist and confront each other.
Key words : consumer society, single career women, ‘Doenjangnyeo’, ‘Fabulous single', politics of consumption Independent Living: An Alternative Support System for People with Disabilities to Overcome Social Park, Hyung-Jin
Ph.D. Candidate, Dept. of Social Welfare, Korea University The purpose of this study is to propose policy initiatives that would grant social rights to people with disabilities through the practice of Independent Living in Korea. It begins by reviewing the different policies and systems of Independent Living in other countries and then analyzing and adjusting them to fit the situation in Korea.
Continuous social exclusion from full participation in society for making a living, organizing life and taking part in the development of the future exists for the disabled. It is advocated with the rationale that social exclusion secures the basic needs of life and that the system is necessary for life support and safeguarding client's rights. In other words, it is argued that people with disabilities have the right to use culturally valued means in order to establish and maintain valued social roles. However, at the individual level, the impact of social exclusion can be devastating, leading to low self-esteem, poor The issue of granting social rights to people with disabilities remains an unresolved problem so far as they are treated as marginal, powerless groups and as a social underclass. Our society has to enable devalued persons to attain a more valued membership in 158 Korean Journal of Social Issues Vol.8 No.1 April 2008 society. Independent Living is very important in the point of guaranteeing the diversity of life as a right.
To resolve the problems of social exclusion in Korea, the first step is to empower people with disabilities through education and skill training for Independent Living. The second step is the institutionalization of Independent Living and continued advocacy through the Independent Living Movement. Lastly it is important to strengthen role of the Key words: social exclusion, advocacy, empowerment, independent The Effect of Fiscal Decentralization of Social Welfare on the Change in the Social Welfare Budget of Local Lee, Joung seb
Ph.D. Candidate, Dept. of social welfare, Pusan National University In the last two decades there has been a worldwide interest in the decentralization of government in developed welfare states. In the western welfare state, financial decentralization was an effective tool for reducing thesocial welfare budget of the central government. There were attempts at financial decentralization for efficient management of social welfare services, but these cases are few and far between.
In a fiscally decentralized system, social welfare policies of local governments are permitted to differ in order to reflect the need of their residents. However, responsibility of social welfare can also be transferred to the local government along with the autonomy.
President Roh Moo Hyun of Participatory Government puts great emphasis upon financial decentralization policies. In 2005, 67 out of 138 national social welfare works were transferred to local government. This study analyses the change of social welfare budget in local governments after financial decentralization of social welfare is executed. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: first, while grants-in-aid for the decentralizedof 67 social welfare works has reduced since financial decentralization of social welfare, the financial burden of the local governments has risen continuously. Second, in spite of the increasing of expenditure caused by the shift 160 Korean Journal of Social Issues Vol.8 No.1 April 2008 in social welfare works from the central government to the local government, the financial shift has not been fulfilled. Consequently, many local governments are facing difficulties in securing the required budget for the social welfare of their residents.
Key Words : financial decentralization, local social work, social welfare budget, grants-in-aid for decentralization A Comparative Research on the National Identity of Korea and Japan in the Age of Globalization Ohn, Mahn-Geum
Kang, Min-Hyoung
The purpose of this research is to examine and compare national identity including national pride, attachment to community, and attitude toward international issues such as trade and foreign culture of both Korea and Japan. Results are generally compatible with theoretical expectation. Both Korean and Japanese are similar in the pattern of attachment to community, national pride in political democracy, economic development, social security system, and achievement in sport. Overall, Japanese attached strongly to community and are more proud of their country. Even though both countries have enjoyed the economicaffluence from foreign trade and relations, they are negative to free trade, foreign goods, and multinational cooperation. Both age and income are positive in Japan while class is negative to national attachment in Korea. And both age and class are positive in Japan while age and education are negative Key words : national identity, emotional attachment, national pride,

Source: http://www.ksrc.or.kr/~socialissues/content/vol_15/ss15-abstract.pdf

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