Standort in Deutschland, wo man günstige und qualitativ hochwertige Kamagra Ohne Rezept Lieferung in jedem Teil der Welt zu kaufen.

Kaufen priligy im Online-Shop. Wirkung ist gut, kommt sehr schnell, innerhalb von 5-7 Minuten. viagra was nur nicht versucht, verbrachte eine Menge Geld und Nerven, und geholfen hat mir nur dieses Tool.

Permethrin

J O U R N A L O F P E S T I C I D E R E F O R M / S U M M E R 1 9 9 8 • V O L . 1 8 , N O . 2
I N S E C T I C I D E F A C T S H E E T
PERMETHRIN
The insecticide permethrin (in the synthetic pyrethroid family) is widely used on cotton, wheat, corn, alfalfa,
and other crops. In addition, over 100 million applications are made annually in and around U.S. homes.

Permethrin, like all synthetic pyrethroids, is a neurotoxin. Symptoms include tremors, incoordination, elevated
body temperature, increased aggressive behavior, and disruption of learning. Laboratory tests suggest that
permethrin is more acutely toxic to children than to adults.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has classified permethrin as a carcinogen because it causes lung
tumors in female mice and liver tumors in mice of both sexes. Permethrin inhibits the activity of the immune
system in laboratory tests, and also binds to the receptors for a male sex hormone. It causes chromosome
aberrations in human and hamster cells.

Permethrin is toxic to honey bees and other beneficial insects, fish, aquatic insects, crayfish, and shrimp. For
many species, concentrations of less than one part per billion are lethal. Permethrin causes deformities and
other developmental problems in tadpoles, and reduces the number of oxygen-carrying cells in the blood of
birds.

Permethrin has been found in streams and rivers throughout the United States. It is also routinely found on
produce, particularly spinach, tomatoes, celery, lettuce, and peaches.

A wide variety of insects have developed resistance to permethrin. High levels of resistance have been
documented in cockroaches, head lice, and tobacco budworm.

BY CAROLINE COX
Permethrin
Mode of Action
throids, kills insects by strongly exciting including head lice control. It was first sending a single impulse in response to a counting for about 60 percent (by weight) of the permethrin used.1 In the U.S., al- in agriculture is used on corn, wheat, and alfalfa.2 Over 100 million applications of side of the nerve cells. Permethrin’s mode permethrin are made each year in U.S.
of action is similar to that of the orga- Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid .
Acute Lethal Dose
secticides, it has four isomers, molecules population of test animals) is variable. In ent three-dimensional structures. (See Fig- 3-Phenoxybenzyl-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2- Caroline Cox is JPR’s editor.
ity occurs because the proportions of iso- NORTHWEST COALITION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDES/NCAP
P. O. B O X 1 3 9 3, E U G E N E, O R E G O N 9 7 4 4 0 / ( 5 4 1 ) 3 4 4 - 5 0 4 4 J O U R N A L O F P E S T I C I D E R E F O R M / S U M M E R 1 9 9 8 • V O L . 1 8 , N O . 2
system is exquisitely sensitive … at expo- Effect of Permethrin on the
sure levels that cause no overt toxicity.”20 Immune System
Neurotoxicity
Effects on Reproduction
male reproductive systems. It binds to re- sects, it causes repetitive nerve impulses.
ceptors for androgen, a male sex hormone, It also inhibits a variety of nervous sys- researchers to “advise protection from any form of contact or ingestion of the pyre- throids.”22 Permethrin also binds to a dif- ferent receptor, called the peripheral ben- zodiazepine receptor, that stimulates pro- mitters8; and acetylcholinesterase, the en- (% cytotoxicity - means with standard errors) acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.) In addi- ducing excitability and convulsions.10 Fi- nally, permethrin inhibits respiration (the Mutagenicity
Blaylock, R.L. et al. 1995. Suppression of cellular immune responses in BALB/c micefollowing oral exposure to permethrin. Bull.
Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 54:768-774.
other neurotoxic drugs.11 It is therefore not surprising that permethrin causes a Permethrin inhibits natural killer cells, one com- wide variety of neurotoxic symptoms.
blurred vision.”17,18 They also cause “red- ness, swelling, and possibly blistering” of “causes eye injury”19 and “may cause al- to three days.12 Other behavioral effects Effects on the Immune
permethrin-containing insecticide) during by living things to defend themselves from Carcinogenicity
permethrin increased aggressive behavior, disease) “appears to be a sensitive target learned feeding behavior in rats at doses system cells called T-lymphocytes to rec- ognize and respond to foreign proteins.
lung tumors in female mice, and increased Eye and Skin Irritation
inhibited T-lymphocytes over 40 percent.
the frequency of liver tumors in male and irritating to both eyes and skin. For ex- nization reports that permethrin increased ample, the agricultural insecticide Pounce tem cell, natural killer cells, by about 40 3.2 EC “causes moderate eye irritation.”16 percent.20 (See Figure 2.) In tests using mouse cell cultures, permethrin had simi- lar effects on the immune system, inhibi- Fogger both cause “tearing, swelling, and NORTHWEST COALITION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDES/NCAP
P. O. B O X 1 3 9 3, E U G E N E, O R E G O N 9 7 4 4 0 / ( 5 4 1 ) 3 4 4 - 5 0 4 4 J O U R N A L O F P E S T I C I D E R E F O R M / S U M M E R 1 9 9 8 • V O L . 1 8 , N O . 2
synergistically induce growth of the soil Incidence of Lung Tumors in Permethrin-treated Mice
permethrin and the insecticide amitraz are Individual Susceptibility
to permethrin, as has been illustrated by mals, it appears children may be moresensitive to permethrin than adults.
Permethrin is almost 5 times more acutely toxic to 8-day-old rats than it is to adultrats.38 (See Figure 4.) • Since sulfates are involved in one of with defects in sulfate-related enzymesmay be unable to easily break down World Health Organization. 1990. Permethrin. Environmental Health Criteria 94. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, United Nations Environment Prog., and International Labor Org. Pp.76-78.
Permethrin increased the incidence of lung tumors in tests conducted by FMC (●) and have reduced activity are at higher risk of crease was not statistically significant.31 at all doses tested in a rat feeding study.24 of the carcinogenicity of permethrin-con- which could explain permethrin’s carci- “ It appears children
nogenicity. First, permethrin reduces the may be more
of their individual effects. A possible cause sensitive to
breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan.
of the health problems reported by 30,000 permethrin than
adults. Permethrin
Second, permethrin inhibits what is called is almost 5 times
“gap junctional intercellular communica- combination of permethrin, the anti-nerve more acutely toxic
to 8-day-old rats
role in the growth of cells, and some can- than it is to adult
toms, including decreased activity, diar- rats.”
rhea, shortness of breath, tremors, inabil- Other Chronic Effects
Effects on Nontarget Animals
Beneficial Arthropods: As a broad
tory studies that exposed rats, mice, and spectrum insecticide, it is not surprising also caused tremors and inability to walk, were noted at the “lowest effect level” in arthropods, those that are useful in agri- Other pesticides interact synergistically laboratory tests include enlarged adrenal with permethrin with in other species.
glands at all doses tested in a rabbit feed- bees; the median lethal dose is 0.008 mi- NORTHWEST COALITION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDES/NCAP
P. O. B O X 1 3 9 3, E U G E N E, O R E G O N 9 7 4 4 0 / ( 5 4 1 ) 3 4 4 - 5 0 4 4 J O U R N A L O F P E S T I C I D E R E F O R M / S U M M E R 1 9 9 8 • V O L . 1 8 , N O . 2
crograms per bee.41 Sublethal exposurescause increased abnormal behavior (trem- Effect of Age on the Toxicity of Permethrin
Biological Control tested the acute tox-icity of permethrin to 13 species of ben- permethrin caused 99 percent mortalityof 12 of the species, and over 80 percent mortality of the other. Effects were per-sistent, lasting over 30 days.44 Sublethaldoses also impact beneficial arthropods: permethrin inhibited the emergence of aparasitoid wasp from eggs of the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica45 and disruptedthe foraging pattern of another parasi-toid wasp as it searched for its aphid prey.46 (Parasitoids are insects that lay (milligrams of permethrin per kilogram of body weight their eggs in, on, or near their prey. The Cantalamessa, F. 1993. Acute toxicity of two pyrethroids, permethrin and cypermethrin, in neonatal and adult rats. Arch. Toxicol. 67:510-513.
populations of agricultural pests at lowlevels.) Permethrin is more toxic (the LD is lower) to young rats than to adult rats.
Aquatic Insects: Because it is a broad
Fish: Permethrin is highly toxic to fish.
This toxicity is due, in part, to the sensi- Permethrin applications to forest streams tivity of their nervous system.54 Fish also caused “a major increase in the density of drifting invertebrates” described as Forest Service in field studies. They found “catastrophic.” (Drifting animals are those that are sufficiently poisoned by the in- mals) is less than 1 part per million (ppm) these fish use as food. In some cases, di- stream.) Most applications were also fol- for almost all fish species tested, and for ets were altered for a year following treat- some fish is less than 1 part per billion fauna,” insects that live in the stream bed.
and migration to untreated areas followed; called emulsifiable concentrates are about months.47 Mayflies and damselflies are the twice as toxic to fish as permethrin alone.
most sensitive species.49 Permethrin also Small fish are less tolerant of permethrin “not an acceptable treatment for large- scale use in forest areas containing fish- also have a particular developmental stage Amphibians: Permethrin disrupts the
Birds: While permethrin’s acute tox-
icity to birds is low,50 it causes other ad- verse effects. Three-week dietary exposure tail abnormality. (See Figure 5.) The in- that concentrations in fish are higher than lowest concentration of permethrin tested, the fish live. Bioconcentration factors (the also responded to prodding in a jerky and NORTHWEST COALITION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDES/NCAP
P. O. B O X 1 3 9 3, E U G E N E, O R E G O N 9 7 4 4 0 / ( 5 4 1 ) 3 4 4 - 5 0 4 4 J O U R N A L O F P E S T I C I D E R E F O R M / S U M M E R 1 9 9 8 • V O L . 1 8 , N O . 2
Effect of Permethrin on Tadpole Development
food (44 percent of the samples tested)and was also found in plums (11 percent Contamination of Water
Survey has found permethrin in streamsand rivers in the Mississippi River Ba-sin,72 the Central Columbia Plateau Florida Coastal Plain,74 the San Joaquin-Tulare Basin (California),75 and the states).76 Permethrin has also been found Permethrin Concentration (parts per million) Berrill, M. et al. 1993. Lethal and sublethal impacts of pyrethroid insecticides on amphibianembryos and tadpoles. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12:525-539.
plication away from the target area, hasbeen measured for two types ofpermethrin applications: aerial and back Permethrin causes a tail deformity, “bent back” in tadpoles.
790 feet) under conditions “highly con- effects.”66 Another animal that is very sen- ducive” to drift.78 These researchers sug- sitive to permethrin is crayfish; LC s for decreased the amounts of two specific pro- 1.2 ppb. Researchers concluded that “even teins is associated with learning. Activity Persistence
cluding acetylcholinesterase, decreased.63 life (the amount of time required for half Other Aquatic Animals: Permethrin
Residues on Food
is very highly toxic to lobster; the LC is agricultural soil and 43 days in Illinois.80 half of the larvae) of less than 1 ppm.65 pesticide.68 Similar results were found in persists longer; soil concentrations did not decline during the first year.81 Permethrin with a bioconcentration factor of 1900.66 also persists longer in tree needles, foli- age, and bark, up to 363 days.82 The abil- permethrin exposure; LC s of several spe- ity of permethrin to persist in the envi- caused “severe mortalities” of two kinds study of an application of permethrin ear samples tested).69 Permethrin was also fre- at concentrations so low that they cannot their pasture, on a fence pole, and in grass.
it in 12 percent of the samples tested.
ppb). This means that “any detection of NORTHWEST COALITION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDES/NCAP
P. O. B O X 1 3 9 3, E U G E N E, O R E G O N 9 7 4 4 0 / ( 5 4 1 ) 3 4 4 - 5 0 4 4 J O U R N A L O F P E S T I C I D E R E F O R M / S U M M E R 1 9 9 8 • V O L . 1 8 , N O . 2
Resistance
References
on the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. Pest.
Biochem. Physiol. 32:106-113.
World Health Organization. 1990. Permethrin.
24. U.S. EPA. Office of Pesticide Programs. Health Environmental Health Criteria 94. Geneva, Swit- Effects Division. 1997. Tox oneliners: Permethrin.
insect that is able to tolerate a particular zerland: World Health Organization, United Na- tions Environment Programme, and International insecticide) to permethrin has been docu- 25. Spencer, F. and Z. Berhane. 1982. Uterine and fetal characteristics in rats following a post- mented in a wide variety of insects. These 2. Gianessi, L.P. and J.E. Anderson. 1995. Pesti- implantational exposure to permethrin. Bull.
cide use in U.S. crop production. National sum- species include pear psylla,84 fall army- mary report. Washington, D.C.: National Center 26. Barrueco, C. et al. 1992. Cytogenetic effects of permethrin in cultured lymphocytes. Mutag.
Whitmore, R.W., J.E. Kelly, and P.L. Reading.
1992. National home and garden pesticide use 27. Surrallés, J. et al. 1995. The suitability of the survey. Final report, Volume 1: Executive sum- micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes as a mary, results, and recommendations. Research new biomarker of excision repair. Mut. Res.
Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.
of these species are resistant to other syn- 28. Barrueco, C. et al. 1994. Induction of structural Vijverberg, H.P.M. and J. van den Bercken.
thetic pyrethroids as well as permethrin.
chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocyte 1990. Neurotoxicological effects and the mode cultures and CHO cells by permethrin. Terat.
The level of resistance is less than tenfold of action of synthetic pyrethroids. Crit. Rev.
in some of the species but high levels of 29. Kale, P.G. et al. 1995. Mutagenicity testing of nine herbicides and pesticides currently used in agri- Al-Rahji, D.H. 1990. Properties of Ca2+ + Mg2+- culture. Environ. Molecul. Mutagen. 25:148-153.
ATPase from rat brain and its inhibition by pyre- roaches (45-fold),86 lice (up to 385-fold)91 30. U.S. EPA. 1997. Office of Pesticide Programs throids. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 37:116-120.
list of chemicals evaluated for carcinogenic po- Rao, G.V. and K.S.J. Rao. 1993. Inhibition of tential. Memo from W.L. Burnam, Health Effects monoamine oxidase-A of rat brain by pyrethroids Division, to Health Effects Division branch chiefs, - an in vitro kinetic study. Mol. Cell. Biochem.
Inert Ingredients
Rao, G.V. and K.S.J. Rao. 1995. Modulation of 32. El-Touky, M.A. 1989. In vivo studies of the ef- acetylcholinesterase of rat brain by pyrethroids fect of some insecticides on the hepatic activi- in vivo and an in vitro kinetic study. J.
ties of L-tryptophan 2,3 dioxygenase and pyri- doxal phosphokinase of male mice. J. Environ.
10. Ramadan, A,A, et al. 1988. Action of pyrethroids on GABA receptor function. Pest. Biochem.
33. Tateno, C. et al. 1993. Effects of pyrethroid in- secticides on gap junctional intercellular com- 11. Gassner, B. et al. 1997. The pyrethroids munications in Balb/c3T3 cells by dye transfer permethrin and cyhalothrin are potent inhibitors assay. Cell Biol. Toxicol. 9:215-222.
of the mitochondrial complex I. J. Pharmacol.
35. Abou-Donia, M.B. et al. 1996. Neurotoxicity re- • Xylenes are in the agricultural insec-
12. International Programme on Chemical Safety.
sulting from coexposure to pyridostigmine bro- 1989. Permethrin health and safety guide. Health mide, DEET, and permethrin: Implications of Gulf and Safety Guide No. 33. Geneva, Switzerland: War chemical exposures. J. Toxicol. Environ.
World Health Organization, United Nations En- vironment Programme, and International Labor skin irritation, headaches, nausea, confu- 36. Stratton, G.W. 1983. Interaction effects of permethrin and atrazine combinations towards sion, tremors, and anxiety in exposed hu- 13. Mitchell, J.A., M.C. Wilson, and M.J. Kallman.
several nontarget microorganisms. Bull Environ.
1988. Behavioral effects of pydrin and ambush in male mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 10:113-119.
37. Usmani, K.A. 1995. Amitraz effect on the phar- caused kidney damage, fetal loss, and skel- 14. McDaniel, K.L. and V.C. Moser. 1993. Utility of macokinetics of permethrin in Helicoverpa zea a neurobehavioral screening battery for differ- (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) J. Econ. Entomol.
entiating the effects of two pyrethroids, • Methyl paraben is in the head lice
permethrin and cypermethrin. Neurotoxicol.
38. Cantalamessa, F. 1993. Acute toxicity of two pyrethroids, permethrin and cypermethrin, in neo- 15. Peele, D.B. and K.M. Crofton. 1987. Pyrethroid natal and adult rats. Arch. Toxicol. 67:510-513.
effects on schedule-controlled behavior: Time 39. Pall, H.S. et al. 1987. Motorneurone disease as and dosage relationships. Neurotoxicol. Teratol.
skin sensitizer, and causes eye, skin, di- manifestation of pesticide toxicity. The Lancet 16. FMC Corporation. 1996. Label. Pounce 3.2 EC 40. Steventon, G.B., R.H. Waring, and A.C. Will- Insecticide. Label. Philadelphia, PA, Mar.
Dimethyl ether is in the household
iams. 1990. Pesticide toxicity and motor neuron 17. Solaris. 1995. Material safety data sheet. Flea- disease. J. Neurol., Neurosurg. Psych.
insecticides Flea-B-Gon Total Flea Killer B-Gon Total Flea Killer Indoor Fogger. San 41. Helson, B.V., K.N. Barber, and P.D. Kingsbury.
18. Solaris. 1995. Material safety data sheet. Ortho 1994. Laboratory toxicology of six forestry in- Control 2.18 It causes respiratory, skin, Total Flea Control 2. San Ramon, CA, July 21.
secticides to four species of bee (Hymenoptera: 19. Pfizer Animal Health. Undated. Label. Adams and eye irritation and depresses the cen- Apoidea). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
tral nervous system. It is also a severe fire 20. Blaylock, R.L. et al. 1995. Suppression of cellu- 42. Cox, R.L. and W.T. Wildon. 1984. Effects of lar immune responses in BALB/c mice following Permethrin on the behavior of individually tagged oral exposure to permethrin. Bull. Environ.
honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: • Butane is in the household insecti-
Apidae). Environ. Entomol. 13:375-378.
21. Stelzer, K.J. and M.A. Gordon. 1984. Effects of 43. Taylor, K.S., G.D. Waller, and L.A. Crowder.
pyrethroids on lymphocyte mitogenic responsive- 1987. Impairment of a classical conditioned re- ness. Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol.
sponse of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) by lant 1.101,102 It is “extremely flammable” sublethal doses of synthetic pyrethroid insecti- 22. Eil, C. and B.C. Nisula. 1990. The binding prop- and short-term exposure causes irritation, erties of pyrethroids to human skin fibroblast 44. Hassan, S.A. et al. 1983. Results of the second androgen receptors and to sex hormone bind- joint pesticide testing programme by the IOBC/ ing globulin. J. Steroid Biochem. 35:409-414.
WPRS-Working Group “Pesticides and Benefi- 23. Ramadan, A.A. et al. 1988. Actions of pyrethroids cial Arthropods.” Z. ang. Ent. 95:151-158.
NORTHWEST COALITION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDES/NCAP
P. O. B O X 1 3 9 3, E U G E N E, O R E G O N 9 7 4 4 0 / ( 5 4 1 ) 3 4 4 - 5 0 4 4 J O U R N A L O F P E S T I C I D E R E F O R M / S U M M E R 1 9 9 8 • V O L . 1 8 , N O . 2
45. Varma, G.C. and P.P. Singh. 1987. Effect of parathion, and permethrin in the estuarine envi- insecticides on the emergence of Trichogramma ronment. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 31:104-113.
82. Sundaram, K.M.S., B.V. Helson, and N.J. Payne.
brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammitidae) 67. Mokry, L.E. and K.D. Hoagland. 1990. Acute 1992. Distribution and persistence of aerially from parasitized host eggs. Entomophaga 32: toxicities of five synthetic pyrethroid insecticides sprayed permethrin in some terrestrial compo- to Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia.
nents of a boreal plantation forest. J. Agric. Food 46. Jiu, G.D. and J.K. Waage. 1990. The effect of Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9:1045-1051.
insecticides on the distribution of foraging para- 68. Day, K.E. 1989. Acute, chronic and sublethal 83. Gassner, B. et al. 1997. Topical application of sitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (Hym.: Braconidae) on effects of synthetic pyrethroids on freshwater synthetic pyrethroids to cattle as a source of zooplankton. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8:411-416.
persistent environmental contamination. J.
47. Kreutzweiser, D.P. and P.D. Kingsbury. 1987.
67. Jarboe, H.H. and R.P. Romaire. 1991. Acute Environ. Sci. Health B32(5):729-739.
Permethrin treatments in Canadian forests. Part toxicity of permethrin to four size classes of red 84. Pree, D.J. et al. 1990. Occurrence of pyrethroid 2: Impact on stream invertebrates. Pestic. Sci.
swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and ob- resistance in pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae) servations of post-exposure effects. Arch.
populations from southern Ontario. J. Econ.
48. Siegfried, B.D. 1993. Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to terrestrial and aquatic 68. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Food 85. Smith, J.E. 1991. Insecticide resistance in the insects. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12:1683-1689.
Safety and Applied Nutrition. 1998. Pesticide fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Pest.
49. Anderson, R.L. 1982. Toxicity of fenvalerate and program: Residue monitoring 1996. http:// permethrin to several nontarget aquatic inverte- vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/pes96rep.html.
86. Atkinson, T.H. et al. 1991. Pyrethroid resistance brates. Environ. Entomol. 11:1251-1257.
69. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Marketing and synergism in a field strain of the German Service. Science and Technology. 1998. Pesti- cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattelidae). J. Econ.
51. Qadri, S.S. et al. 1987. Haemotoxicity to chicken cide data program: Annual summary calendar (Gallus gallus domesticus) by technical and for- 87. Marshall, D.B. and D.J. Pree. 1986. Effects of mulation grades of some phosphoric and synthetic 70. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Marketing pyrethroid insecticides on eggs and larvae of pyrethroid esters. J. Appl. Toxicol. 7:367-371.
Service. Science and Technology. 1995. Pesti- resistance and susceptible populations of spot- 52. McCorkle, F. et al. 1980. The effect of permethrin cide data program: Annual summary calendar ted tentiform leafminer. Can. Ent. 118:1123- on the immune response of chickens. Poul. Sci.
71. Wiles, R. and K. Davies. 1995. Pesticides in 88. Tabashnik, B.E., N.J. Cushing, and M.W.
53. U.S. EPA. 1993. Data evaluation record: baby food. Environmental Working Group and permethrin. Avian reproduction study. Reviewed National Campaign for Pesticide Policy Reform.
Plutellidae) resistance to insecticides in Hawaii: by Charles G. Nace. Washington, D.C., Mar. 12.
Intra-island variation and cross-resistance. J.
54. Eells, J.T. et al. 1993. Differences in the 72. Goolsby, D.A. and W.A. Battaglin. 1993. Occur- neuroexcitatory actions of pyrethroid insecticides rence, distribution and transport of agricultural 89. Shen, J. and F.W. Plapp. 1990. Cyromazine re- and sodium channel-specific neurotoxins in rat chemicals in surface waters of the Midwestern sistance in the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae): and trout brain synaptosomes. Toxicol. Appl.
United States. In Goolsby, D.A., L.L. Boyer, and Genetics and cross-resistance to diflubenzuron.
G.E. Mallard. Selected papers on agricultural 55. Haya, K. 1989. Toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides 90. Cilek, J.E. and G.L. Greene. 1994. Stable fly to fish. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8:331-391.
midcontinental United States. Open File report (Diptera: Muscidae) insecticide resistance in 93-418. Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey.
Kansas cattle feedlots. J. Econ. Entomol. 87:275- 57. Holdway, D.A. and D.G. Dixon. 1988. Acute tox- 73. Williamson, A.K. et al. 1998. Water quality in icity of permethrin or glyphosate pulse exposure the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington, and 91. Rupes, V. et al. 1995. A resistance of head lice to larval white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Idaho, 1992-1995. U.S. Geological Survey Cir- (Pediculus capitis) to permethrin in the Czech and juvenile flagfish (Jordanella floridae) as cular 1144. Tacoma WA: U.S. Geological Survey Republic. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health 3:30-32.
modified by age and ration level. Environ.
74. Berndt, M.P. et al. 1998, Water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain, Georgia and 92. Mumcuoglu, K.Y. et al. 1995. Permethrin resis- 58. Rice, P.J. et al. 1997. Acute toxicity and behav- Florida, 1992-96: U.S. Geological Survey Circu- tance in the head louse Pediculus capitis from ioral effects of chlorpyrifos, permethrin, phenol, Israel. Med. Vet. Entomol. 9:427-432, 447. (Ab- strychnine, and 2.4-dinitrophenol to 30-day-old Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) Environ.
75. Dubrovsky, N.M. et al. 1998. Water quality in 93. Burgess, I.F. et al. 1995. Head lice resistant to the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, California, 1992- pyrethroid insecticides in Britain. Brit. Med. J.
59. Kreutzweiser, D.P. and G.A. Wood. 1991.
1995. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1159.
Permethrin treatment in Canadian forests. Part Sacramento, CA: U.S. Geological Survey.
94. Wolfenbarger, A. and J. Vargas-Camplis. 1997.
3: Environmental fate and distribution in streams.
76. Petersen, J.C. et al. 1998, Water quality in the Tobacco budworm response to pyrethroid insec- Ozark Plateaus, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, ticides in the Winter Garden area and in the 60. Muir, D.C.G., B.R. Hobden, and M.R. Servos.
and Oklahoma, 1992-95. U.S. Geological Sur- Lower Rio Grande Valley. Resist. Pest Manage.
1994. Bioconcentration of pyrethroid insecticides vey Circular 1158. http://water.usgs.gov/lookup/ and DDT by rainbow trout: uptake, depuration, 95. ICI Americas Inc. 1990. Material safety data and effect of organic carbon. Aquat. Toxicol.
77. U.S. EPA. Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic sheet: Ambush 2E. Wilmington, DE, Aug. 9.
Substances. 1992. Pesticides in ground water 96. Ortiz, D. et al. 1995. Acute toxicological effects 61. Kingsbury, P.D. and D.P. Kreutzweiser. 1987.
database. A compilation of monitoring studies: in rats treated with a mixture of commercially Permethrin treatment in Canadian forests. Part formulated products containing methyl parathion 1: Impact on stream fish. Pestic. Sci. 19:35-48.
and permethrin. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 62. Berrill, M. et al. 1993. Lethal and sublethal im- 78. Helson, B.V., N.J. Payne, and K.M.S. Sundaram.
pacts of pyrethroid insecticides on amphibian 1993. Impact assessment of spray drift from sil- 97. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Pub- embryos and tadpoles. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
vicultural aerial applications of permethrin on lic Health Service. Agency for Toxic Substances aquatic invertebrates using mosquito bioassays.
and Disease Registry. 1995. Toxicological pro- 63. Yaseem, N. and Nayeemunnisa. 1992. Insecti- Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12:1635-1642.
file for total xylenes. Atlanta, GA, Aug.
cide induced disruptions in functioning of devel- 79. Sundaram, K.M.S., P. de Groot, and A.
98. Warner-Lambert Co. Undated. Nix® permethrin/ oping brain of Rana cyanophlictis. Ind. J. Exper.
Sundaram. 1987. Permethrin deposits and air- lice treatment. www.healing-aid.com/nix.html.
borne concentrations downwind from a single 99. Acros Organics. 1996. Material safety data sheet: 64. McLeese, D.W., C.D. Metcalfe, and V. Zitko.
swath application using a back pack mist blower.
methyl p-hydroxybenzoate. Fairlawn, NJ, Feb. 1.
1980. Lethality of permethrin, cypermethrin, and J. Environ. Sci. Health B22:171-193.
100. MG Industries. 1997. Material safety data sheet: fenvalerate to salmon, lobster, and shrimp. Bull 80. U.S. EPA. 1993. Memo from P.J. Mastradone, dimethyl ether. Malvern, PA, Dec. 9.
Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25:950-955.
Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch, 101. S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. 1997. Material safety 65. U.S. EPA. 1993. EEB review of permethrin.
to L. Deluise, Special Review and Reregistration data sheet: Raid® Yard Guard Formula V.
Memo from A.F. Maciorowski, Ecological Effects Division. EFGWB review of permethrin. Wash- Branch, to Jay Ellenberger, Special Review and 102. S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. 1996. Material safety Reregistration Division. Washington, D.C., July 22.
81. Su, N., R.H. Scheffrahn, and P.M. Ban. 1993.
data sheet: OFF! Yard & Deck Area Repellent I.
66. Schimmel, S.C. et al. 1983. Acute toxicity, Barrier efficacy of pyrethroid and organophos- bioaccumulation, and persistence of AC 222,705, phate formulations against subterranean termites 103. Messer-MG Industries. 1997. Material safety data benthiocarb, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, methyl (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol.
sheet: n-Butane. Malvern, PA, Dec. 9.
NORTHWEST COALITION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDES/NCAP
P. O. B O X 1 3 9 3, E U G E N E, O R E G O N 9 7 4 4 0 / ( 5 4 1 ) 3 4 4 - 5 0 4 4

Source: http://www.lbamspray.com/LbamSpray/Reports/Permethrin.pdf

Microsoft word - anh-van-d.doc

ĐỀ THI TUYỂN SINH ĐẠI HỌC NĂM 2011 MÔN THI: ANH VĂN; Khối D Thời gian làm bài: 90 phút, không kể thời gian phát đề Mã đề thi 369 ĐỀ THI GỒM 80 CÂU (TỪ QUESTION 1 ĐẾN QUESTION 80) Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following qu

ocg.gov.jm

Office of the Contractor-General Public Body Contract Awards (J$275,001 to J$10,000,000 in Value) Quarterly Contract Awards (QCA) Report QCA Report submitted to the Contractor General pursuant to Section 4(2)(a) and 4(3) of the Contractor-General Act COMPLETE ONLY AFTER READING INSTRUCTIONS IN APPENDIX B . SELECT APPLICABLE PRINT RANGE BEFORE PRINTING SECTION 1 (1) Name of Reportin

Copyright © 2010-2014 Internet pdf articles