The official text of the Prohibited List
shall be maintained by WADA
and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2005.
THE 2005 PROHIBITED LIST
WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
Valid 1 January 2005
The use of any drug should be limited to medically justified
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES
(IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited. 1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
β-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one; bolasterone; boldenone;
boldione; calusterone; clostebol; danazol; dehydrochloromethyl-
testosterone; delta1-androstene-3,17-dione; delta1-androstenediol;
delta1-dihydro-testosterone; drostanolone; ethylestrenol;
fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol; gestrinone;
4-hydroxytestosterone; 4-hydroxy-19-nortestosterone; mestanolone;
mesterolone; metenolone; methandienone; methandriol;
methyldienolone; methyltrienolone; methyltestosterone; mibolerone;
nandrolone; 19-norandrostenediol; 19-norandrostenedione;
norbolethone; norclostebol; norethandrolone; oxabolone; oxandrolone;
oxymesterone; oxymetholone; quinbolone; stanozolol; stenbolone;
and other substances with a similar
chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
b. Endogenous** AAS:
β-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-
ene-3,17-dione); dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); dihydrotestosterone;
and the following metabolites and isomers: 5
(androst-5-ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; 3
Where a Prohibited Substance
(as listed above) is capable of being produced by the body naturally, a Sample
will be deemed to contain such Prohibited Substance
where the concentration of the Prohibited Substance
or its metabolites or markers and/or any other relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete
so deviates from the range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production. A Sample
shall not be deemed to contain a
in any such case where the Athlete
proves by evidence that the concentration of the Prohibited Substance
or its metabolites or markers and/or the relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete
is attributable to a physiological or pathological condition. In all cases, and at any concentration, the laboratory will report an Adverse Analytical Finding
if, based on any reliable
analytical method, it can show that the Prohibited Substance
is of exogenous origin. If the laboratory result is not conclusive and no concentration as referred to in the above paragraph is found, the relevant Anti-Doping Organization
shall conduct a further investigation if there are serious indications, such as a comparison to
reference steroid profiles, for a possible Use
of a Prohibited Substance
. If the laboratory has reported the presence of a T/E ratio greater than four (4) to one (1) in the urine, further investigation is obligatory in order to determine whether the ratio is due to a physiological or pathological condition, except if the
laboratory reports an Adverse Analytical Finding
based on any reliable analytical method, showing that the Prohibited Substance
is of exogenous origin. In case of an investigation, it will include a review of any previous and/or subsequent tests. If previous tests are not available, the Athlete
shall be tested unannounced at least three times within a three month period.
Should an Athlete
fail to cooperate in the investigations, the Athlete
shall be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, zeranol, zilpaterol.
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the
S2. HORMONES AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances, including other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s), and their releasing factors, are prohibited:
1. Erythropoietin (EPO);
2. Growth Hormone (hGH), Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1),
Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs);
3. Gonadotrophins (LH, hCG);
Unless the Athlete
can demonstrate that the concentration was due to a physiological or pathological condition, a Sample
will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance
(as listed above) where the concentration of the Prohibited Substance
or its metabolites and/or relevant ratios or markers in the Athlete
so exceeds the range of values normally found in humans so that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production. The presence of other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s), diagnostic marker(s) or releasing factors of a hormone listed
above or of any other finding which indicate(s) that the substance detected is of
exogenous origin, will be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding
. S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists including their D- and L-isomers are prohibited. Their use requires a Therapeutic Use Exemption.
As an exception, formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol and terbutaline, when administered by inhalation to prevent and/or treat asthma and exercise-induced asthma/broncho-constriction require an abbreviated Therapeutic Use Exemption.
Despite the granting of a Therapeutic Use Exemption, when the Laboratory has reported a concentration of salbutamol (free plus glucuronide) greater than 1000 ng/mL, this will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding
athlete proves that the abnormal result was the consequence of the therapeutic
use of inhaled salbutamol. S4. AGENTS WITH ANTI-ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY
The following classes of anti-estrogenic substances are prohibited:
1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to, anastrozole,
letrozole, aminogluthetimide, exemestane, formestane, testolactone.
2. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) including, but not
limited to, raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to,
clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Diuretics and other masking agents are prohibited.
Masking agents include but are not limited to: Diuretics*, epitestosterone, probenecid, alpha-reductase inhibitors (
finasteride, dutasteride), plasma expanders (
e.g. albumin, dextran,
Diuretics include: acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlortalidone,
etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone,
thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide),
, and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
* A Therapeutic Use Exemption is not valid if an Athlete
’s urine contains a diuretic
in association with threshold or sub-threshold levels of a Prohibited Substance
M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
a. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous
blood or red blood cell products of any origin, other than for medical treatment.
b. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including
but not limited to perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products).
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
The following is prohibited: Tampering,
or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of
collected in Doping Controls
. These include but are not limited to intravenous infusions*, catheterisation, and urine substitution. * Except as a legitimate acute medical treatment, intravenous infusions are
M3. GENE DOPING
The non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to enhance athletic performance, is
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
In addition to the categories S1 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above,
the following categories are prohibited in competition:
The following stimulants are prohibited, including both their optical (D- and L-)
isomers where relevant: Adrafinil, amfepramone, amiphenazole, amphetamine, amphetaminil,
benzphetamine, bromantan, carphedon, cathine
*, clobenzorex, cocaine,
**, etilamphetamine, etilefrine,
famprofazone, fencamfamin, fencamine, fenetylline, fenfluramine,
fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mephentermine, mesocarb,
methamphetamine, methylamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine,
modafinil, nikethamide, norfenfluramine, parahydroxyamphetamine,
pemoline, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine, phentermine, prolintane,
, and other substances with a similar chemical structure or
similar biological effect(s)***.
is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5
micrograms per milliliter.
** Each of ephedrine
is prohibited when its
concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
*** The substances included in the 2005 Monitoring Program (bupropion,
caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradrol, pseudoephedrine,
synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances.
NOTE: Adrenaline associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local
administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.
The following narcotics are prohibited:
buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its
derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone,
oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Cannabinoids (e.g. hashish, marijuana) are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered orally, rectally,
intravenously or intramuscularly. Their use requires a Therapeutic Use Exemption
All other routes of administration require an abbreviated Therapeutic Use
Dermatological preparations are not prohibited.
SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited in-Competition
only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping violation threshold for each Federation is reported in parenthesis.
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited in-Competition
the following sports. • Aeronautic (FAI)
• Skiing (FIS) in ski jumping & free
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following: acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol,
carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol,
metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
“Specified Substances”* are listed below:
Ephedrine, L-methylamphetamine, methylephedrine;
All inhaled Beta-2 Agonists, except clenbuterol; Probenecid; All Glucocorticosteroids; All Beta Blockers; Alcohol. * “The Prohibited List may identify specified substances which are particularly susceptible to unintentional anti-doping rule violations because of their general availability in medicinal products or which are less likely to be successfully abused as doping agents.”
A doping violation involving such substances may result in a reduced sanction provided that the “…Athlete can establish that the Use of such a specified substance was not intended to enhance sport performance…”
Structure-function relations of human hemoglobinshttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1484532 Note: Performing your original search, "hemoglobin koln" symptoms , in PubMed Central will retrieve 8 citations . Journal List > Proc (B ayl U niv M ed Cent) > v.19(3); Jul 2006Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2006 July; 19(3): 239–245. Copyright © 2
Mother to Child Transmission of HIV: Prevention, Treatment, and Education Report Prepared for the Saskatchewan Prevention Institute Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: Prevention, Treatment and Education . 3 1. Introduction . 3 2. Introduction to HIV/AIDS . 3 2.1 HIV Transmission . 5 2.2 HIV Testing . 6 2.3 Symptoms of HIV . 7 2.4 HIV Treatment . 7 2.5 Diagnosis of AIDS . 8