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Mangalica (an old breed — new possibilities)

Scientific Conference in Herceghalom, November 15. 2005

Due to the development of scientific dietetics and health conscious behaviour of consumers in
the past one and the half decades the nutrition biological value of food products (that is to say
fat content, fatty acid components, cholesterol content, vitamin and mineral contents among
which meat and meat products, the quantity and rate of bioactive materials etc.) has become
significant. In addition to this, from the production side, sustainability of natural environment,
animal welfare and protection aspects, increase of quality consciousness, national traditions and
origin protection have come to the foreground and a great attention has been paid to natural
animal keeping
and revelation of traditional breeds, their protection and utilization. In the
majority of countries where animal husbandry has always been traditional there is a prioritized
research area concerning the definition of nutrition biological advantages, their utilization in
special products and wide communication with the population.
According to economic forecast, meat consumption is not going to increase in the developed
parts of the world in the near future, but in the meantime quality demand will grow and change,
therefore products aiming at fulfilling special demands will gain more fields. These reasons
explain the great interest towards Mangalica these days. The Research Institute for Animal
Breeding and Nutrition (Herceghalom) and the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural
Sciences, Department of Animal Husbandry try to fulfil this great interest with launching a series
of conferences every second year in the topics of Mangalica breeding, keeping, feeding and
processing. The first conference was held with more than 120 participants in Herceghalom, in
November 2005.
Nowadays Mangalicas are either of pure or cross breed. Both kinds have their place and
importance. After about 7,000 registered sows around 70,000 or 80,000 fattened pigs goes either
direct for home consumption, which is a kind of nostalgia, whereas the majority goes to the
domestic or foreign markets after industrial processing. Although a lot has been said about this
breed, its history and adventures, that it has nearly become extinct, nevertheless there are very
few current, up-to-date and proper research results which can be checked and come up to the
present requirements. The organizers of the conference wanted to make up for this information
gap inviting the most knowledgeable professionals of this topic, sending this out in prints and via
electronic way to everyone interested.
In this copy of the Állattenyésztés és Takarmányozás (Hungarian Journal of Animal Production)
readers can have the edited version of the lectures while all the original lectures can be found on
the web site of the Research Institute of Animal Breeding and Nutrition.
SUMMARY THE PAST AND THE ROLE OF PIGBREED MANGALICA IN ANIMAL BREEDING OF HUNGARY IN THE 19th AND 20th CENTURIES Kovács József The author shows the development of pig breed Mangalica. The history of breeding is demonstrated during many centuries. It is illustrated how this extreme fat-type pig breed was pushed into the back round spectacularly. In connection of using this breed the effect of practical, economical, public feeding and supply relations is referred by literature cited. The influence of agricultural and social political changes are also discussed in all detail. By means of well organised work the preservation of genetical ability of Mangalica offers excellent base to produce dry delicacies in meat industry. Information about Mangalica breeding, research, breeding organization and herd-book can be found in study. SUMMARY THE REVIVAL OF THE MANGALICA PIG Szabó Péter If we want to make judgements about the present status of the Mangalica pig, we must also overview the recent past of the breed. As recently as 1955, almost 18,000 sows were registered, which decreased to 5% of that number in ten years, and then to 1.3% of that total, i.e. 243 heads, in 15years. Over the next seven or eight8 years, the decrease became even more considerable, when this figure of 1.3% decreased further, to 1/10 of the original stock, i.e. 34–39 head. The increase in the population of the stock between 1994 and 2005 is a mirror image of the decrease between 1959 and 1970. The controlled stock increased by about 50 times (from 154 to7,600 heads), and the number of farms went up by more than 30 times (from six to 198), which is unprecedented in the history of animal breeding in Hungary. As far as quantitative increase is concerned, the last decade can be said to be a successful one. Breeding work: The increases in the size of the controlled stock gave grounds for the employment of one full-time breeding manager from 1998 and then, since 2003 the are two regional registration officials help with and control the breeding and registration activities. The territory of the country is divided into for parts and the registration officials visit the 40–60 breeders in their regions every three months. The increase in the size of the controlled stock made it possible to reject and also gave grounds for the rejection the inclusin in the Mangalica pig register of individual pigs and stocks of unknown origin. For this reason The Hungarian National Association of Mangalica Pig Breeders and The National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control together compiled and published in two languages(Hungarian and English) the data for 3096 female and 246 male Mangalica pig stock and so created the register “of origin” for three Mangalica breeds with the aim of conducting closed registration in the future as regards practical breeding purposes. The latest research in gene preservation proved that the colour variants of the Mangalica pig are individual breeds on their own. It is rather unfortunate, but almost inevitable that the intensive quantitative increase diverts breeders’ attention from qualitative considerations such as the preservation of genetic bases with the lines providing the basis for the breeding, included. It is unnecessary to go back 50–100 years in time but enough just to count the lines used in the three breeds and compare them with the number of the existing ones. The conclusion is that even in the not distant past breeding was conducted in 53 Mangalica lines. In contrast, the number of the lines existing at present is 27 and that of the extinct ones is 26, a decrease of 49%. After having declared the Mangalica Pig Register a closed register the next decision of the Association, which is to bring favourable changes in quality is the introduction for the breeding farms from 1st January 2006 the so called ABC classification with the following benefits expected: — Controlled rearing, trading in and use of male stores. — A decrease of the current variance of 50–60% in lines to 10–15% and thus the creation of the genetic balance of lines. — Side by side with a strict judgement of external characteristics, variety-specific marks and the constitution of the animal, growth vigour (weight gain per day) is also to be taken into considerations a breeding tenet. — The re-introduction of family breeding and its use to increase reproduction. Subsidies: After the establishment of the Association of Mangalica Pig Breeder received considerable state subsidies: — From the Preservation of Biological Bases there was an opportunity to apply for HUF 2–4 million yearly for modernising keeping technology. — From the Animal Breeding Fund each breeder (may) receive(s) HUF 6000 or 3000 for each piglet born, as litter subsidy up to 450+150 sows. The total amount of this subsidy (HUF 3,150,000) has not changed for over a decade. — Beginning from 2004 the Association may claim a subsidy of HUF 2600 per litter for animal breeding and breeding organisation purposes. — As part of the animal welfare subsidy a sum of HUF 1800 may be claimed after fattening each pig sold to slaughterhouses. — As part of animal husbandry and agricultural environment management target programs from1st September 2005 HUF 20 000/sow/year (keeping indigenous animals) may be claimed with the provision that the animals must be kept for five years. The members of the association have submitted108 applications for a total of 5,500 heads. Research: Over the past ten years considerable research has been conducted in the Mangalica pig at the University of Kaposvár, the Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Szent István University and the Hungarian Meat Research Institute. At the same time the University of Debrecen conducted the following research: — 1995–1996: Gene preservation in the Mangalica pig. Embryo transplantation experiment under the supervision of the Animal Research Institute. — 1997–1999: Gene-mapping on crossbred individuals of two different pig breeds (Mangalica and Duroc). — 2000–2001: Research project for the utilisation of the Mangalica pig. — 2001–2004: Implementation of the project: The breeding, fattening and slaughtering performance of the Mangalica pig. (As a member of the consortium the Hungarian National Association of Mangalica Pig Breeders took part in the project, named Integrated Agro-economic Models in the domestic agriculture in the 21st century). — 2002–2005: Scientific exploration of the genetic and economic values of traditional domestic animal breeds (DE ATC–ÁTK–OMMI).At the OMÉK (National Agricultural and Food Fair) in Gödöllő in 1996 the achievements in Mangalica embryo transplantations were awarded a special prize (ÁTK–DATE co-operation)At the 74th OMÉK (National Agricultural and Food Fair) in 2005 the Grand Prize for Animal Breeding offered by the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control was awarded to the Hungarian National Association of Mangalica Pig Breeders for their successful breeding activities over the preceding five years. MOE has live contacts with breeders in Austria, Serbia and Romania and there interest in Mangalica pig breeding from Swiss, German and Slovakian breeders as well. DAGENE provides funds and further opportunities for co-operation in the field of Mangalica pig breeding with the countries mentioned above. With the introduction of the ABC pig register there is an opportunity to create vertical integration in breeding, breeding organisation and breeding animal sales. If we manage to carry out these activities with success, we may call the history of the past ten years the beginning of the revival of the Mangalica pig. SUMMARY POPULATION GENETIC STUDIES IN THEHUNGARIAN MANGALICA BREEDS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS Zsolnai Attila - Radnóczy László - Fésüs László - Anton István The genetic structure and relationships among Mangalica breeds and farms at different geographical locations have been studied by microsatellite markers, in order to characterise the populations and to give sound scientific basement for management practices. Nearly 300 animals has been analysed by ten microsatellite markers. The estimated distances were the smallest between Swallow-belly and Blond, while Red showed the largest genetic distance from the previous two breed. This approach is capable of distinguish subpopulations within breeds as well. The present work can be extended to handle mating, to control conservation and to maintain genetic variability and viability of the breeds. — the three mangalicas can not be treated solely as colour variants, — red has the highest genetic distance from the other two mangalicas, — small, but detectable variances can be dechipered among farms regarding each mangalica THE STANDARD OF THE PUREBREED MANGALICA HOG The typical fat type breed was developed in the 19th century in the Carpathian basin. As the breed does not require special care and has well fattening ability and excellent fat production from the beginning of the 19th century until 1950 it was the most popular swine breed in Hungary. The fat, bacon and not at least its salami were demanded products in the European market, so it was rightly world famous in its time. Mangalica breed, to be considered as pure-bred, fully described in the breeding documents, areas follows: Blond Mangalica: It is the most popular variant. Generally if we do not use other attribute, on hearing the Mangalica denomination, one thinks about Blond Mangalica. Hungarian Mangalica is a fat-type hog of medium body size with fine, but very strong skeleton. Fur of the breed is dense and long, curling like chips in winter, more tender, shorter and more straight in summer. The skin of the Mangalica is pigmented greyish-black, the openings of the body, the mouth, the rim of nose are black and tits and hoofs also have black colour. The head is medium long, the profile of the nose is slightly curved, the ears are medium large and leaning forward. The minimum number of tits is 5-5 on both sides. Swallow Bellied Mangalica: The breed was developed in southern Hungarian and Croatian territories from the crossing of Blond Mangalica with the hog of Szerémség (Syrmium). Back and flank have black fur, but the lower part of the body, the belly and chaps extending to the corner of the mouth, are yellow, white or silvery grey. Excellent constitutional strength and resistance to weather and keeping conditions, coarser hair are characteristic of the breed. The present Swallow Bellied hogs are smaller than the Blond Mangalica, however according to the descriptions it was a robust animal with lower dressing percentage than in the case of Blond Mangalica and slower gain, but higher adult weight could be achieved. Red Mangalica: It derives from the crossing of the ancient Hungarian Szalontai hog with Blond Mangalica. The traditional site of keeping of the breed is in the eastern region of the Great Plain, near Transylvania. The fur is darker or reddish brown of lighter shade. Body size and weight exceed the other Mangalica breed, consequently it has a higher growth rate and fertility. The main purpose of the breed preservation is to conserve the genes of the original Mangalica breed in unaltered form. All the three variants should keep their natural variability without the deleterious effects of inbreeding or loss of genes existing in the present population. BIOTECHNICALAND REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS IN PROPAGATION OF MANGALICA BYGROUNDS RESEARCH OBSERVATIONS Rátky József - Klaus Peter Brüssow - Egerszegi István - Wouter Hazeleger - Sarlós Péter - Tóth Péter Aim of these studies was to determine factors, which influence reproductive performance of the native Hungarian Mangalica. There was not any modern investigation in this topic till now. Authors analysed the oocyte maturation and the hormonal changes during the peri- and postovulatory period in Mangalica and Landrace gilts, and recorded morphometrical data about the genital tracts of cycling and pregnant animals. The mean ovulation rate was lower in Managlica, they had less oocyte with expanded cumulus cells and with mature chromatin configuration compared to Landrace (P<0.05). Typical LH and ovarian steroid secretion pattern were found during the peri- and postovulatory period in both breeds. Mean progesterone secretion was higher in Mangalica however the number of corpora lutea was lower (P<0.05). The mean ovulation rate was 10–12 in spontaneous estrus. In synchronized animals ovulation rate varied between 6.8±1.4 and 17.2±1.2. Length of the uteri did not increase in pregnant Mangalica at investigation times in front of the findings in Landrace (P<0.01). These results supported that beside lower follicular development and diminished oocyte maturation, the uterine capacity also influence the reproduction of Mangalica during early pregnancy. SUMMARY ECONOMIC FATTENINGOF MANGALICA Gundel János - Hermán Istvánné - Regiusné Mőcsényi Ágnes -Mihók Sándor - Bodó Imre After the review of the hundred years old literature of Mangalica breeding, the authors review the results of comparative experiments with Mangalica and Hungarian Large White (HLW) pigs. Both breeds were fed with two types of feedstuffs: according to the express fattening recommendation for Mangalica (Csáky, 1935) and the requirements of the HLW breed. Animals were slaughtered in 100and 130 kg live weight. Production results, slaughter value of the final product and pork quality were analysed. It was also examined whether nutrition influences the final animal products (including fatty acid composition of products) and in what extent. The effect of three-phase nutrition was examined by feeding of mixtures with different energy, lysine, crude protein and fat (including fatty acid) content. It was concluded that better nutrient supply did not increase the fattening results. Feed utilisation improves on the impact of decreased nutrient supply. The ratio of valuable meat parts did not changed for the effect of nutrition. Fat content of ham and chop samples reflects to the characteristics of the given genotype. Fatty acid composition of the product is equal to the feedstuff. Culinary value of Mangalica products exceeds of meat breeds. Nutrition, which is not wasteful and satisfies the genetic abilities of Mangalica, can develop Mangalica breed to compete on the market. This can result that Mangalica meat products will be preferred considering their physiological and culinary values comparing to other meat products. SUMMARY COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MANGALICA AND MEAT-TYPE PIGS BY MEANS OFCOMPUTERISED TOMOGRAPHY Romvári Róbert Pigs can be regarded as a highly variable species with as many as 500 breeds known worldwide. Its biological diversity is demonstrated by the differences found in tissue and body composition of the meat and fat type pigs. Carcass traits have been extensively studied concerning meat type pigs, however Mangalica is much less known from this aspect. Computerised tomography (CT) scanning makes non-invasive tissue composition analysis possible. Having the advantage of an in vivo application, multiple measurements can be performed on the same individuals. Accordingly, the objective of the present examination was the tissue composition determination of Mangalica pigs in comparison with the concerning traits of meat type pigs in different weight categories. The CT scanning of the pigs was performed using a Siemens Somatom S40 spiral equipment at the Institute of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology of the Kaposvár University. Cross-sectional consecutive scans of 10 mm slice thickness were taken covering the whole body under inhalation anaesthesia. By the image evaluation from the total Hounsfield scale only 400 density values, ranging from –200to +200, were taken into account, belonging to fat, and muscle tissue (water = 0). From these values all 10 neighbouring ones were summarised, resulting in altogether 40 Hounsfield variables. The tissue composition and its changes were demonstrated by means of histograms. Using volumetric estimation, the total muscle percentage and the muscle to fat ratio were determined. The calculated meat to fat ratio values were 3.4, 3.2 and 1.9 (meat-type pigs), while those of fat-type pigs were 1.0,0.6 and 0.5, respectively, in the average weight categories of 30, 60 and 90 kg. In these weights, the meat percentage values were 35.5, 30.9 and 28.5 of the Mangalicas and 61.5, 57.7 and 53.2 %of meat-type pigs. The investigation of the tissue development in the body was carried out by means of 3D histograms. In the cross-sectional images the surface of the m. longissimus dorsi and also the m. semitendinosus and the fat thickness at the back and the rump were also measured. The intramuscular fat content was characterised by average X-ray density value. The applied non-invasive procedures are appropriate to monitor the changes of body composition of extremely different pig genotypes during the growing period and also the selection-induced alterations are clearly demonstrated within the species. The in vivo determination of body composition, particularly lean and fat content, can provide an effective tool to be used in selection. SUMMARY MEAT QUALITY AND HUMAN NUTRITIONALIMPORTANCE OF MANGALICA Lugasi Andrea - Gergely Anna - Hóvári Judit - Barna Éva - KertésznéLebovics Vera - Kontraszti Mariann - Hermán Istvánné - Gundel János In this study the concentrations of nutrients and lipid peroxidation characteristics were investigated in ham (M. semimembranosus) of pigs from two different breeds. Traditional Hungarian Mangalica and a crossbreed of Hungarian Large White x Dutch Landrace genotypes were involved in the study. Animals of both varieties were divided into two groups and they were kept individually, on two different mixtures of feed. Mangalica feed mixture met the requirements of mangalica pigs, while experimental feed was adequate for the crossbreed and as a consequence of 20% full-fat soybean, it contained significantly higher concentrations of linoleic and linolenic acids than the other one. Animals were slaughtered at average 115 kg body weight when mangalica and crossbreed pigs were 378–391, and 223–237 days old, respectively. Focusing on the chemical composition of the meat significant differences were observed between two genotypes independently from the diet. Significantly higher levels of dry material and fat content were detected in muscle tissue of mangalica pigs kept on both feed mixtures than in that of crossbreed. In relation to higher fat content the concentration of lipid peroxidation products especially conjugated dienes was also significantly higher in the traditional mangalica comparing to crossbreed. At the same time the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione-peroxidase) were also higher in mangalica breed showing a well-balanced prooxidant-antioxidant system in the animals. Significant differences were observed in fatty acid composition between genotypes and feeds. Proportion of saturated fatty acids was nearly the same in the meat of two genotypes kept on both diets. Higher percent of mono unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic and oleic acid) and lower ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic and linolenic acids were detected in mangalica muscle tissues than in crossbreed ones. Proportions of linoleic and linolenic acids were significantly higher in the animals of both genotypes consuming experimental feed containing high level of linoleic and linolenic acids than in those kept on mangalica feed. In human nutritional point of view the ratio ofn-6 and n-3 fatty acids was unfavourable in the meat of both genotypes kept on mangalica diet. The ratio in the muscle tissue of mangalica and crossbreed were 12.1:1 and 15.5:1, respectively. Consuming experimental diet containing high level of linoleic and linolenic acids had a beneficial effect on n-6/n-3 ratio. The ratios in mangalica and crossbreed animals were 9.2:1 and 9.6:1, respectively. Concentrations of copper, iron and zinc and vitamin B as thiamine and riboflavin were significantly higher in the meat of mangalica pigs kept on both diets that in that of crossbreed animals. According to the feeding practice, the same mixture of vitamins and minerals was added to both types of feed at the same concentration (0.5%). It seems possible that the concentration of microelements and vitamins in the muscle tissue of meat animals were genetically determined. According to present results, it became clear that the mangalica, the traditional Hungarian pig genotype, has valuable characteristics, such as high microelement and vitamin content. Fatty acid composition of the mangalica tissues can be successfully modified by feeding with feed mixtures having adequate polyunsaturated fatty acid sources. Meals prepared from mangalica meat can be incorporated to modern and healthy human diet in case if the meal preparation and kitchen techniques are adequate for the technological properties of meat. However, because of genetically high fat content (around 10%) and the susceptibility to oxidative rancidity of mangalica meat, frequent consumption should be limited, to avoid human health risk. SUMMARY MEAT PRODUCTS FROM MANGALICA Zelenák Levente - Vadáné Kovács Mária - Nagy Sándorné The author’s aim was to manufacture products, having a traditional appearance suggesting the excellent meat quality of indigenous animals. Proteins of non meat origin, stabilizers, colourings or flavourings were not used in the products, in order that not to make them similar to mass-products. In the products, it is easy to recognize the natural structure of meat. Although there is a commonplace that mangalica’s meat has a high eating quality, no systematic comparison has been made with meat originated from other breeds. In this work commercial pig, cornwall and cornwall-hybrid were used for comparison. Since fresh meat as retail cut can be a product itself, sensory evaluations of grilled meat was also conducted beyond dry and sausages cured and filled products manufactured from mangalica meat and fat tissue. The shoulders as primal cuts, were used for bone-in country-shoulder products after shaping. The hams were used after further cutting to three pieces as boneless ham cuts containing subcutanfat cover. Beside the main products, there were also produced skinned bacon and high amount of trimmings for sausage production. The authors used also skinned loin for cured products. Contrary to the other dry sausages generally produced, salami was manufactured without paprika in order to develop characteristic aroma of special raw material. At the production of salami there is a chance to use mangalica bacon in larger volume. Sensory properties of freshly grilled mangalica meat chops were find to be considerably better than the control ones, regarding the colour, taste intensity texture and juiciness. Moreover, they hadn’t got the unpleasant off-flavour regularly occurring at the controls. Concerning the meat products, mangalica was in favouring position, too. Nowadays, mangalica products are presented more frequently on the shelves of supermarkets. Unfortunately, on the base of the author’s experiences, their quality was not always conform to their reputation. Thus, a frequent quality control is needed in the future. SUMMARY REQUIREMENTS FOR MANGALICA FOOD PRODUCTS Halmy László Managlica food products are suitable for satisfying special needs due to their excellent value and despite of the high cholesterine content. The appropriate omega6/omega3 fatty acid ratio and antioxidantsin Mangalica pork could play important role in the compensation of aterogene effect of cholesterine and other fatty acids. For the sake of healthy diet, consumption of Mangalica meatproducts should not exceed ratios of dietary recommendations. SUMMARY FATTY-ACID COMPOSITIONS OF THE TISSUES OF MANGALICA AND OTHER PIG GENOTYPES Szabó Péter There can be close relationships demonstrated between dietary habits and circulatory-vasculardiseases. Scientific literature clearly blames the appearance of such a condition on the amount and unfavourable composition of fat consumed. The establishment of this widespread disease in Hungary was considerably enhanced by the fact that daily consumption of fat is disproportionately high — 115 g/capita. Since fat is mainly consumed with pork dishes it is worth studying the factors influencing the composition and nutritional quality of pork, which contains most fat. The scientific literature says that the amount and composition of fat coming to be incorporated into pork carcasses is equally influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The meat of the wild hog contains half as much fat and about 50% saturated fatty acids than that of the domesticated pig even at the same feeding regime. Among domesticated pig breeds it is especially rather the old fat breeds that will incorporate more fat than the ones selected for meat production 5–6decades ago. The extent of fat incorporation and its composition are influenced by a number ofenvironmental factors. Changing the feeding regime of Iberico or Mangalica pigs may change the composition of fatty acids incorporated, which in turn will bring about favourable changes in itsnutritional value. Furthermore, these breeds do not pose a danger to human health because they have become almost extinct and the proportion of products produced from them is almost negligible compared to those from other breeds. As regards highly efficient modern breeds they are criticised all over the world because their meat is tasteless, poor in aromatic materials, which is blamed on the small (0.5%) intramuscular fat content. At the same time, however, the high fat producing Iberico and Mangalica breeds are the raw material for exceptionally high quality marketable products that sell at premium prices. Also, the fat contents of bacon and salami quality products are also much higher than of those that specialists qualify as being healthy, yet consumers do not turn their back on these products. Researchers have investigated several factors from producing meat to producing food on the formation of fat contents and the composition of fatty acids. The breed, the sex, the slaughter weight, the level of feeding, feeding feeds richer in unsaturated fatty acids to animals, the way the feeding is conducted (ad lib., rationed), the keeping technology and the grazing all have their effects on the amount and composition of fatty acids incorporated into the body. The way the pork carcass is chopped up, the parts of the body of the animal, the extent the fat is removed from the parts, the recipe of the product to be made, the way the dish is prepared and the composition of the fat in which the meat is fried all influence the quality and the nutritional value of the food. At the Animal Breeding Research Farm of the University of Debrecen we conducted tests with ten different pig genotypes (3 breeds and 7 crossbred groups) - by using feedstuffs of the same composition- as regards the fatty acid compositions of their back bacons and the inner quality of their meat. Ten pigs from each group of 130–140 kg slaughtering weight were sampled: the same part of the back bacon and meat from the spare rib. The fatty acid contents were analysed in the laboratory of the Biological Research Institute in Szeged and the meat was tested in the central laboratory of the University of Debrecen. Within the fatty acid composition of the different breeds and crossbred groups the proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids showed significant differences. The mean value for the amount of saturated fatty acids was 41.99%. The saturated fatty acid contents of the fat from Red Mangalica pigs was 36.99%, which — with the exception of the Blonde Mangalica pig — was significantly less, and their unsaturated fatty acid was 63.01%, and at P<0,1% level, was higher than those from other breeds. On the average of the genotypes the sex of the animal did not bring about significant differences in the amounts of either saturated or unsaturated fatty acids. As regardsmiristinic, palmic and stearic acids, these saturated acids showed significant differences at P<5%value on the mean averages of the ten groups. As regards unsaturated fatty acids it was miristoleinicacid, which has the smallest quantity (0.59%) and linoleic acid (0.47% where the means of the varieties tested were different at P<5%. The differences between the mean values for palmitoleinic acid (2.36%), oleic acid (39.78%) and the nutritionally most important linolic acid(12.61%) are also reliable at P<0.1% level. The unsaturated acid occurring in pork in the highest amount is oleic acid. The oleic acid contents in the Red Mangalica and the Blonde Mangalica are 43.65 and 42.7% respectively, which are significantly higher at P 5% and so are more favourable than in any other breed. In the tests we conducted the fat gained from Mangalica pigs contained 12–16% less saturated and 8-10 % more unsaturated fatty acids than modern pig breeds. The 12% higher oleic acid content of Mangalica fat is advantageous especially from a nutritional point of view. Due to the smaller growth vigour of Mangalica pigs they reach slaughtering weight two months later than modern breeds. Their fat incorporation is relatively higher by 52% and they produce 23.5less meat than modern pig breeds. On the other hand the dry matter content of Mangalica pork is higher than that of modern breeds while the latter have more protein in their meat. the differences between the different genotypes are, however, not significant. Fat and fatty pigs have higher fat contents in their meat than intensive meat pork varieties do. as regards the proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, the values for Blonde and Red Mangalica stocks differ considerably from those for modern pig breeds. Linolic and lonoleic acid contents, which contain more dualbonds, are fewer in Mangalica pigs than in modern breeds but these readings do not significantly differ for pigs of different utilisations. From a nutritional point of view the fatty acid composition of Mangalica pigs may be improved by applying special feeding regimes — grazing, providing feeds with feed containing higher levels essential fatty acids, especially, if demands for functional foods grow. In our experiment 50% of the maize groats in the feed mix given to the fattening pigs was replaced with maize germ groats, which had an oil content of 6.6%. This change in feeding did not bring about significant changes in thefeed uptake, weight gain or feed conversion in the pigs tested. The saturated fatty acid contents of back bacon samples did not change either, although oleic acid contents decreased by a relative value of 18% while linolic acid and linoleic acid essential fatty acids increased by 45.5 and 38.1%respectively. Arachidonic acid, which was not trace in earlier experiments, had a relative value of3.18%. The Mangalica pig cannot be harmful to the health of the Hungarian population because its total amount of the daily average meat and fat consumption is below 0.5%.


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Early Communication of an Ongoing Safety Review: BisphosphonatesFDA Home Page | CDER Home Page | CDER Site Info | Contact CDER | What's New @ CDER Early Communication of an Ongoing Safety Review Bisphosphonates: Alendronate (Fosamax, Fosamax Plus D), Etidronate (Didronel), Ibandronate (Boniva), Pamidronate (Aredia), Risedronate (Actonel, Actonel W/Calcium), Ti

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