Música instrumental brasileira: um encontro de musicalidades

Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities This article is a brief ethnography of Brazilian instrumental popular music, termed música instrumental in Brazil, which is known in the international universe of Brazilian popular music and not as a national adaptation of jazz, as well as search for its main characteristics and socio-cultural nexus in contrast with North American jazz. The specific goal is to show how there is constant reference in Brazilian jazz to North American jazz, mainly in the realm of improvisations, and that these references mark the tense encounter between Brazilian and North American musicalities, a founding characteristic of this music. I begin by explaining the meaning of the term música instrumental, and then I trace a brief historical overview of Brazilian jazz and draft a definition of the musical field through its lines. I then explain the use of the term bebop, which appears frequently in the verb form bebopear [to bebop], and in the following section I demonstrate the correlations between Brazilian jazz and bebop. Finally, in order to account for the characteristics of Brazilian jazz, I develop the idea I do not intend to write a history of Brazilian jazz, but begin an exploration of the theme in an attempt to gather preliminary data to help construct Brazilian jazz as an object of anthropological study. This paper is based on ethnographic data obtained in interviews and jam sessions with musicians active in the São Paulo scene, which is one of the most significant in Brazil (Piedade 1999b). I refer to these musicians, as well as their audience, as natives, in the sense of people who belong to a musical community. The results of this paper are also the fruit of my own musical background and professional experience as a musician in this scene. Instead of “Brazilian jazz,” the designation of this musical genre in Brazil is música instrumental brasileira [Brazilian instrumental music]. Naturally, in Brazil the word “instrumental” also means the music composed for and played exclusively with instruments--that is, music that does not have any lyrics or text--, which includes genres from Western European art music. música instrumental is the label used by the natives for the specific corpus of musical productions of Brazilian jazz. This way, the category MPB, música popular brasileira [popular Brazilian music], taken as the heterogeneous collection of popular urban musical Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. productions in Brazil that has been showing stability at least from the 1960s on, is taken here as a supergenre comprised of categories such as música instrumental, national rock/blues, bossa nova, pagode, sertaneja music, samba, forró, axé music, lambada, etc. Since there are many types of instrumental music, the natives are aware of the inadequateness of the term música instrumental, and for them the correct designation would be música popular instrumental brasileira [Brazilian instrumental popular music]. The fact is, it is called música instrumental. Meanwhile, in magazines and stores outside of Brazil “Brazilian jazz” is used, and especially in the USA Brazilian jazz is frequently regarded as a sub-field of Latin jazz, a generic label that also designates Afro-Caribbean genres such as salsa. However, this wide use of the term Latin jazz that places Brazil in the Latin world is not shared in Brazil, where natives use the word Latin to refer solely to Afro-Cuban rhythms. This rejection of Brazil’s Latin qualities reveals a contrastive construction of cultural identities, hiding what in reality is a common ground, as for example in the idea of mestizo (Quintero-Rivera 2000).ilar phenomenon is expressed by the natives’ refusal to call música instrumental Brazilian jazz. According to many of them, as a category jazz is too heavy and does not encompass all the musical diversity of música instrumental. However, for purposes of international promotion, the label Brazilian jazz is accepted, especially since música instrumental is also an incorrect The ambiguous nature of the term música instrumental is symptomatic of the actual uncertainty surrounding the dimension of its musical field and its historical roots. In fact, most natives recognize the fluidity of the genre and ask themselves what unites musicians as dissimilar as Egberto Gismonti, Hermeto Pascoal, Toninho Horta, and so many others. Despite this uncertainty, there is a shared tacit knowledge and a lived experience that enable the natives to recognize what is música instrumental, so much so that they are constantly seeking legitimation of their identity in the face of MPB and jazz, two musical traditions that are very close to música According to native interpretations, Brazilian jazz originated in the beginning of the 20th century, with the emergence of an instrumental genre of Portuguese influence known as choro [weeping], which to this day is played and is greatly appreciated (Cazes 1998), and widely considered by natives as the ancestor of Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. Brazilian jazz. The history of choro, or chorinho, involves interesting facts for this discussion, and therefore I shall relate a brief history until the advent of bossa nova in the 1950s, when Brazilian jazz most clearly emerges, differentiating itself from In Brazil, by the second half of the 19th century, there was a rich repertoire of European instrumental dance music, such as polka, mazurka and schottisch, rhythms that were blended and transformed in the national genres of the time, such as maxixe and lundu. At this point, the word choro simply meant a typical musical formation known as trio de pau e corda [wood and string trio], which performed maxixe in an improvisational manner (Reily 2000, 6); later then, choro came to mean a way of playing, and finally, around the 1930s, it was named the musical genre. Even though it emerged among the popular classes, choro established a strong connection with art music through figures such as Ernesto Nazareth and Chiquinha Gonzaga, who composed fully scored choros. The bourgeoisie started to appreciate this choro dressed as art music, and began to see it as an expression of Brazilianess, for it was eager at this time for symbols of national identity to counteract France’s cultural prominence. Chorinho established itself around musicians such as Pixinguinha and Garoto, who paved the road for other instrumental music to conquer the public’s tastes. It should be noted that the origins of chorinho and samba are deeply interwoven, and the consolidation of chorinho as an individual genre is perhaps related to the great shift in style that occurred within samba in the 1930s, when the old samba-maxixe, dating from the mid-1800s, gave way to the more “whitened” samba of the sambistas of Estácio (Sandroni 2001). In the 1920s, more precisely in 1922, during the Semana de Arte Moderna [Week of Modern Art] in São Paulo–a fundamental moment of modernism in Brazilian art (Wisnik 1977),--the band Pixinguinha e os oito Batutas was returning from a sojourn in Paris, during which it seems to have fallen in love with jazz. While jazz was exploding commercially in the United States, in Brazil Batutas was heavily criticisized for having adopted a jazzy style, for having been “contaminated” by jazz (Menezes Bastos 2000, 20; Vianna 1995, 117). I take this to be the first important moment of friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz. Already present at this time is an Adornian and pessimist critical view of popular music, one that seems to endure throughout the history of MPB and is based on the idea of musical autonomy Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. (Middleton 1990, 41-45). The persistent view of some critics, who relied on what Hamm calls the modernist narrative of authenticity (1995), also stems from this. According to this narrative, folk music and music from different peoples is more valuable depending on its degree of non-contamination: the presumption here is that a culture is only authentic when is does not mix with others, leading to the notion that a commercial product and authenticity are irreconcilable. By the end of the decade, important intellectuals such as Gilberto Freyre were criticizing jazz and the influence of North American culture on Brazil (Vianna 1995, 182), in the same tone in which José Ramos Tinhorão would later criticize bossa nova (see below). In sum, the natives consider chorinho to be the great ancestor of Brazilian jazz, even though the latter only properly emerged in the heart of musical experiences of the bossa nova period. The natives have much respect for chorinho performers, especially great masters such as Pixinguinha, yet they explain that contemporary chorinho has become too much of a conservative genre in general terms. The natives accept this fact because they attribute to chorinho the role of a “root music,” which must be preserved from exotic influences. However, this native thinking hides a certain rivalry that results from the chorinho musicians’ self-conscious strategy to stay away from the jazz influence, which touches on several symbolic points to which the natives are sensitive. According to native discourse, even though chorinho’s symbolic “advantage” of being “root” music and not having undergone the influence of jazz causes a certain tension between chorinho and Brazilian jazz, the natives absorb a lot from choro’s melodic patterns. This is very interesting when seen as a rebirth of the old concept of choro as a way of playing, prevalent in the early 20th century. Personally, I think that what confers the seemingly conservative face of chorinho is actually a structural characteristic of this genre, which evokes nostalgia, simplicity, virtuosity, and cosmopolitanism. I think this thematic stability makes chorinho subject to eclipse phases, which in fact occurred from the 1940s, when it scarcely developed, until the 1970s, when choro festivals started boosting the re- emergence of the genre. Currently chorinho is undergoing an impressive revival, mainly in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Brasília, with the emergence of many young and new artists, such as the groups Trio Madeira Brasil, Arranca-toco, trio Brasília Brasil, and artists such as Maurício Carrilho and Yamandú Costa, as well as specialized record label Kuarup Discos. The music of art music composer Radamés Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. Gnatalli plays a central role in this rekindling of choro. Contemporary choro explores new repertoires, however attempting to maintain the traditional sound and typical distance from jazz. It has been a separate musical genre from Brazilian jazz since at least the 1950s, yet despite this differentiations choro musicality is an important element in the compositions and improvisations of Brazilian jazz. This musicality is primarily enacted through melodic characteristics, which emerge in the typical shaping of the melody and use of appoggiatura and arpeggios, often in scherzando In the 1930s the repressive dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas began, lasting until 1945 and marked by nationalist discourse. In this so-called radio era, many groups-- refered to as regionais--showed up to play live for radio broadcasts. During this period the Rio de Janeiro carnival was glorified, helping to transform samba, until then rejected and execrated by the elites, into Brazil's national music, through the interaction and dialogue between Afro-Brazilian musicians, and intellectuals and artists of the city of Rio de Janeiro, a fact which Vianna terms “the mystery of samba” (1995). Meanwhile, the presence of American culture in Brazil was intensified during this period, mainly through movies and dance music. Brazilian samba was represented in the USA primarily by the figure of Carmem Miranda and Bando da Lua, interestingly exhibiting a fairly Mexicanized image. Carmem created a particular view of Brazilianess, strongly criticized in Brazil (Vianna 1995, 129-131) because of the anti-American climate disseminated by the nationalist thought of the 1940s. While, since the end of the 1920s, many dance bands in major Brazilian cities had played fox-trot and other North American music in dance salons (Kiefer 1979, 60-61), in the 1930s they started to play Brazilian rhythms, such as chorinho, for dancing. This tradition leaded to the gafieira bands of the 1940s that played instrumental music based on arrangements of popular songs and instrumental compositions that were different from both fox-trot and chorinho. Despite exploring Brazilian rhythms, many of these bands began calling themselves jazz bands, but because the term gave the band a modern touch, and not because it was musically influenced by jazz (Cazes 1998, 61). Despite its huge success, this instrumental dance music left the scene in the 1960s and only returned, mainly in São Paulo, in the mid- 1980s, with the revival of the gafieira (Piedade 1999b). Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. Another important fact of the 1940s was the avant-garde art music group surrounding German composer Hans-Joachim Koellreutter, called Música Viva, which represented a great renovation of the language of the previous nationalist paradigm, headed by Villa-Lobos. Popular music and atonalism profoundly influenced Música Viva composers such as Claudio Santoro and Guerra-Peixe, and the gafieira maestros K-chimbinho and Severino Araújo were among their students, as well as future exponents of bossa nova, such as Moacyr Santos and Antônio Carlos Jobim. Yet this was an avant-garde movement, and at the time much nationalistic criticism was directed against its advances, and Brazilian art music was marked in the following decade by the outcome of a new nationalism (Neves 1981, 77-106). During the post-war years, nationalism was on the rise in many countries, accompanied by an impressive consolidation of North American jazz in the international scenario, and at this time many nationalized jazz styles emerged. In the midst of this scene, bossa nova was born and artists such as João Gilberto and Antônio Carlos Jobim appeared, constituting a landmark in Brazilian and world popular music (see Castro 1990). At the end of the 1950s and early 1960s, names such as Laurindo de Almeida, Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz made bossa nova known to the North American audience. While the world was discovering bossa nova, an entire generation of instrumentalists profoundly influenced by jazz got involved with this music, creating mostly instrumental bossa nova trios, such as the Milton Banana trio, Tamba trio, Jongo trio, and bigger groups, such as J.T. Meireles and the Copa 5, all these groups having frequently played at bars and jazz clubs, such as Bottle’s and Farney’s bar in Rio de Janeiro. West coast jazz was heavily appreciated and played, and in fact its influence on bossa nova is undeniable, even though the “cool” element of bossa nova may have an older connection with the 19th century modinhas in Brazil (Menezes Bastos 1999a). While João Gilberto’s famous guitar beat came from the rhythmic patterns of samba (Garcia 1999), bossa nova harmonies were derived not only from jazz, but were also congruent with Brazilian urban music of the 1930s and 1940s, especially the dance band arrangements (Pinheiro 1992). Despite this, in the 1960s bossa nova was strongly criticized, accused of being elitist and resulting from the Americanization of MPB (especially by Tinhorão 1974, 1998). This was counteracted by critics who afirmed the modernity of bossa (Campos 1974) and by the tropicalismo (Veloso 1997) (see below). The crystallization of Brazilian jazz as a Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. musical genre occured precisely in this environment--in the instrumental universe around bossa nova--and thereafter it develops apart from chorinho, which would cultivate its conservative nature, and apart from instrumental dance music. Throughout the 1960s, bossa nova was still appreciated in the country and was legitimized by its international success, but it began to fade away (Castro 1990), until its retaking in the 1980s. In addition to bossa nova, several simultaneous waves occurred in MPB in the 1960s: the movement known as jovem guarda, which assumed a well-behaved romantic rebellion with its bolero-like rock-&-roll songs (Menezes Bastos 1999b); protest music, which affirmed a necessarily political engagement of art (Tinhorão 1974); and finally, the tropicália movement, which synthesized all these waves (Dunn 2001, Sanches 2000, Calado 1997, Veloso 1997). Tropicalismo is an attempt to articulate modernity and tradition, hence touching deeply on what Da Matta termed the “Brazilian dilemma”: the founding dichotomization of Brazilian ethics between the rural-traditional-holistic and the urban-modern-individualistic worlds (1979). In the midst of these various waves, the emerging Brazilian jazz was growing, sustained mainly by bossa nova and its reflections in the USA, where the celebrated meeting of João Gilberto and Stan Getz symbolized the encounter between the Brazilianess of bossa nova and the Americaness of jazz, launching a dialogue of musicalities that would become central to Brazilian jazz. The compatibility of Getz’s solos with the groove of bossa nova created a sound that would be explored also by cool jazzists. In addition, Airto Moreira, Flora Purim, Oscar Castro Neves, and other Brazilian musicians who lived in the USA started bringing to jazz Brazilian rhythms such as baião, and percussion instruments such as the pandeiro and berimbau. The occasional inclusion of these “exotic” elements in American jazz reflexively stimulated natives and changed their way of playing, while legitimizing the continuity of Brazilian jazz. In other words, elements of Brazilian music, because of the way in which they were incorporated into North American music, return to their original source legitimized by international recognition, and thus end up reinserting themselves into and reinventing tradition. A recent example of this reflexivity is the North-american drummers typical way of playing samba and bossa, heavily drawing on cymbals, which influenced the style of many Brazilian drummers, who in turn create new ways of playing. This reflexivity seems to me an essential constituent of Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. the cultural systems of reappropriation and rearticulation of globalized musicalities, since the world’s musical genres are composed mutually and dialogically. MPB itself results from a notable interaction with Caribbean, Paraguayan and Argentinean music (Menezes Bastos 1999b), with bolero playing a central role (Araújo 1999). In the 1970s, despite the constraint in Brazilian culture caused by the military dictatorship that began in 1964, independent record labels came out in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, such as Lira Paulistana, dedicated to promoting Brazilian jazz. In other regions of the country the genre also developed significantly, such as in Minas Gerais, where the Clube da Esquina movement emerged, bringing groups like Som Imaginário and Azymuth, and in Pernambuco, where the Armorial movement arose, which blended the traditions of popular Northeastern culture and avant-garde art. In the 1980s, Brazilian jazz began to participate in international jazz festivals such as the one in Montreaux. At the same time that the success of national rock was dawning (Dapieve 1995), Brazilian jazz seemed to have achieved maturity with the music of Hermeto Pascoal and Egberto Gismonti, forming a musical unity that remains to this day relatively homogeneous in thematic, structural and stylistic terms, and consisting therefore of a genre of recent tradition. In addition, one must not forget the important role of brass bands, mainly in small Brazilian towns, which until at least the 1960s frequently played in park bandstands. For example, many musicians from the Mantiqueira band, an important current exponent of Brazilian jazz, began their musical experiences in connection with these bands, as is the case of saxophonist and clarinetist Nailor “Proveta”. With the maturity of Brazilian jazz in the 1980s, the following decade represented a period of impressive growth, as it will be adressed at the end of this article. I shall now examine the lines and tendencies of Brazilian jazz. I could identify three terms that I think represent the main tendencies of Brazilian jazz: brazuca, fusion and ecm. According to the natives’ view, these are three of the so-called main linhas (lines) of Brazilian jazz. Native discourse refers to these lines not as closed monolithic labels, but as open and flexible thematic musical fields, where the three lines intermingle and dialogue with each other, while one of them--depending on the artist--remains salient. For this reason, the natives do not say that a given artist is brazuca, but that he is “more brazuca,” which does not exclude his fusion and ecm qualities. Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. brazuca” line--a term obviously derived from “Brazil”—consists of national rhythms such as samba, baião, frevo, maracatu, and articulates the jazz language in a dialogue with expressive elements of these rhythms. The largest exponent of brazuca is Hermeto Pascoal, and its oldest referential is the legendary group Quarteto Novo, from the end of the 1960s. Northeastern musicality plays a central role in this line: the extensive use of the mixolydian mode, with optional augmented fourth, or the dorian mode, with various melodic riffs, the beat of baião, that is, musical material that originate from the music of the Brazilian Northeast region and that are largely disseminated in all Brazilian music. Another influence in Brazuca line is the melodic style of chorinho, with its typical ornamentation and its playful ethos. In a discussion among natives, one can say a given song has a “very brazuca” theme, or that a saxophonist has a “really brazuca” style of composition, that is, that he does not simply “bebop,” he has a very “root” sound. In the “more fusion line, the mixture of samba and funk predominates, based on the musical movement Black Rio and on the danceability of carioca [from the city of Rio de Janeiro] funk and soul music. In this aesthetics a predominance of corporality, a roguish swing of samba and a funky dance drive talk with each other. The extinct band Cama de Gato crystallized this line, which encompasses musicians such as Leo Gandelman, Marco Suzano, and others. One of the most explored facets of the “more fusion” line is the rhythmic structural similarity between partido alto samba and funk. One of the best known groups of this line is Aquarela Carioca, which uses the cello and pandeiro and created a new, yet deeply carioca, sound (Connel ecm line is more of a jazz and meditative line, while more influenced by European avant-garde and world music. The word ecm refers to the style of the music recorded by German record label ECM, which, beginning in the 1980s, included artists such as Egberto Gismonti and Naná Vasconcelos. In this ecm sound there is a certain disregard for the power of danceability, and at the same time a great freedom and much room for improvisations, elaborated and exploratory solos. This demands much musical background from the musician, including knowledge of art music. The inclusion of South-American indigenous musicality and instruments, such as the rain stick, is typical of this line, and helps create an atmosphere of suspended time, evoking rituality and mythical temporality. Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. As stated above, these three lines are presented with the quantitative indicator “more” because the natives believe that in Brazilian jazz there is no repertoire whose tendency is solely and purely brazuca, fusion or ecm. These three tendencies are part of a pragmatic knowledge and may be articulated by the same artist or group, or may even appear in different moments of the same composition, or in a single improvisation. For example, the Cama de Gato sound, classified as a “more fusion” line, also expresses brazuca tendencies, but the fusion tendencies are dominant. These lines may be seen as styles of the Brazilian jazz genre. My understanding of a musical style is inspired on Bakhtin’s ideas about styles of language and functional styles (1986), which considers generic styles for certain spheres of human activity and communication. As typical forms of communicative spheres, styles are inseparably linked to particular compositional units. That is, they are connected to certain types of constructions, as parts of a totality, yet they also act over them as if “polishing” their surfaces. Brazuca, fusion and ecm, inseparable from the repertoire of Brazilian jazz, are mental constructions that are articulated and communicatively recognized by the natives, and they cross the Brazilian jazz musical genre without touching on the There is a particular kind of symbolic relationship unitying these three lines: “more brazuca” points inwardly--to what is internal, to the regional identity of the rhythms it articulates;-- “more fusion” evokes a corporality common to samba and funk, symbolizing a viability of musicalities that highlights blackness and hence tradition; while the “more ecm” line, directing itself outwardly--towards globality and intersubjectivity--points towards globalization. Such directions show how the lines of Brazilian jazz mirror Da Matta’s aforementioned Brazilian dilemma. I should reiterate that currently there is much more instrumental music being cultivated in Brazil in addition to Brazilian jazz, such as chorinho and the dance music of gafieira, both classified by the natives as within a possible line termed resgate [rescue]. By looking into the multiplicity of current tendencies of MPB (Mello 2000), today it is possible to find recordings of a variety of regional instrumental music, such as the music of viola caipira player Helena Meireles, electric trios from Bahia, and experimental groups such as Uakti. In native discourse, bebop is a musical language connected to the North American jazz bebop tradition developed from the 1940s on, but mainly in its melodic Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. dimension. The bebop serves as a basic springboard for Brazilian jazz musicians to create a type of methodology, indicated by the large-scale use of the famous compilation of jazz songs called the “real book,” and Charlie Parker’s solo transcriptions, the “omni book” (Gutstein 1978), referred to as a “bible” by many saxophonists. What is worth noting here is that the jazz language is extremely structured and normatized, and therefore strictly conventional, as Berliner (1994) demonstrated. This author reveals the development of a unique improvisational jazz voice, considering it to be an aesthetics and a tradition, and which I would argue is a musicality, in the sense in which I have been using the word and shall define below. Brazilian jazz natives are aware of this normative aspect of jazz, and they refer to bebopear [“to bebop”] as meaning “to articulate phrases according to this style,” which means it is necessary to know, respect and follow its rules. Here I shall limit myself to exposing a few native meanings expressed in the native's explanations about - suingar [to swing], which is to imprint the jazz feel (Brazilian musicians interpret this as the predominance of 12/8 meter). Each beat should express two notes most of the time, the second corresponding to the last ternary subdivision of the beat. This note should be lightly accentuated in order to get suíngue [swing]. While the bass should strictly hold the pulse by always playing on the beat, the drums should “think in front,” that is, play ahead of the beat, and the phrases suingadas [swinging] of the soloist should “hold it,” that is, to force back by playing behind the beat. This way, the group shall be really suingando [swinging]. I think this native meaning of swing could be compared to USA jazz natives’ notions of swing, groove and feel, approximating an interesting definition of Van Praag cited by Keil: “swing is a physical tension that comes from the rhythm’s being attracted by the metre” (Feld and - the wide use of patterns or standardized harmonic sequences of the II-V-I type, also - the use of typical melodic clichés, or riffs, which are ready-made musical phrases to be engaged in specific harmonic patterns; - the manner of linking the notes available for improvisation to the type of chord in the harmonic basis and to the chord alterations; Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. - the way of attacking these notes by employing chromatic and diatonic - the creative interaction between the rhythm section and the soloist, as shown by All these points are meanings expressed and employed by the natives in their use of the concept of bebopear. Transgressions of the system, such as the use of polytonality and the so-called outside scales, are foreseen in this bebop aesthetics of I shall remind the reader that the object of this article is not the Brazilian interpretation of jazz, but a specific genre, Brazilian jazz, which is born within the instrumental world of bossa nova, involving, from the outset, an encounter of the Brazilian and North American jazz musicalities, which I term friction of musicalities. Now that I have sketched a brief history of Brazilian jazz, a description of its main tendencies, and the use of the bebop concept, I shall present my view of musical genres and musicality, and then define friction of musicalities. Several studies on music show that genres are cultural constructions classified by natives and that the borders between musical genres are flexible and mutable, and therefore questionable under several points of view. The scene of genres in popular music is one of intense fluidity: new genres with new labels emerge constantly, often through the intersection of multiple existing genres, or from the reevaluation of their symbolic borders. Likewise, there may exist musical genres that are performed but which have no label, as occurs with literary genres (Ducrot and Todorov 1972, 147). To approach musical genres as discourse is one way of trying to unfold the cultural meanings that underlie their construction (Walser 1993). The notion of genre employed here is inspired on the ideas of Bakhtin about speech genres (1986): a musical genre is like a set of musical and symbolic elements that presents stability in terms of thematics, styles and compositional structures. Genres are therefore like spheres of popular music that incorporate relatively similar musical productions during a certain period of time and are constantly subject to changes. All over the world, musicians are constantly creating news fusions and connections, and for this reason the study of genres in popular music is a difficult and constant task. Supergenres are the categories that somehow encompass several musical genres, and Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. Brazilian jazz, as we saw above, is a musical genre that belongs more to the supergenre MPB than to the supergenre jazz. I’m viewing musicality as more than a musical language: it a set of musical and symbolic elements, deeply interconnected, that constitutes a system which rules the musical world of a given community. It is also the competence of musical hearing and practicizing enacted through this musical-symbolic system, a capacity that derives largely from a learning process. Even though it results from a particular manner of ordering the audible world achieved through cultural transmition, it’s not monolithic and exclusive: as a repository of cultural meanings, consisting a kind of “cultural memory” (Floyd Jr. 1995), a musicality can be approached by means of observation and participation. Thereby, an individual can reach a certain competence in different musicalities, similarly to what Hood termed “bimusicality” (1960), and an example of this is Brazilian jazz natives’ efforts to attain competence in jazz, and so are the efforts of some North American jazz natives in relation to Brazilian music. Bebopear is the expression of the Brazilian reading of the jazz musicality, yet it is simultaneously both valuable and fearsome for most Brazilian jazz natives: it demonstrates technical know-how and mastery of the jazz language, which symbolically is a passport to global communicability, but at the same time it teleologically points to the need for dissolving bebop itself and expressing what distinguishes it from Brazilian jazz, that which is nearer to a “root” of Brazilian musicality, therefore more “authentic.” There is an important contradiction here, which refers to the already mentioned modernist narrative of authenticity. However, along with the drive to avoid contamination from the bebop paradigm and to seek an expression that is more rooted in Brazil, there is an absolute cannibalization of the jazz musicality, explicit in the natives’ discourse about their favorite jazz masters and the wide use of jazz methods for instrumental improvement. The moment of improvisation clearly exemplifies these considerations: when a native soloist has a free space for expression, there are moments when he gives himself frankly to bebop, seeking the weight of the jazz tradition that gives him legitimacy and confers on him a symbolic status of global improviser, but at the same time he tries to express something more Brazilian, making use of traits of other Brazilian music genres, such as chorinho. A very frequent resource at this time is the use of Northeastern musicality, considered to be a “root” musical universe and a safe Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. ground for authentic expression. The idea of valuing “roots” is still a very strong narrative in Brazilian music in general, and its origins are probably found in 19th century German romantic thought, with the congruence between the concepts of popular, nation and rural (Middleton 1990, 4). This relationship to the Northeast as source of authenticity is historical, and remounts to the foundations of Brazilian modernist thought of the 1920s and 1930s (Menezes Bastos 2000, 23-4). Therefore, in Brazil “roots” are found in the countryside, in rural areas, in the simplicity as opposed to the urban world. Other possible resources to escape bebop involve hybrid languages of the urban world—such as romantic lyricism from contemporary Brazilian songs—as well as the “atonal moments” of outside scales, and the expression of other Brazilian musicalities connected to regional musical developments in the country, such as music from Bahia, from the Amazon, and from Rio Grande do Sul (Lucas 2000). I argue that these fields express their own musicalities, which are here re-enacted in a new context. I am attempting to show that the musicality of Brazilian jazz is comprised of an amalgam of regional musicalities—Northeastern, chorinho, samba, Afro-Bahian, free (urban atonalism, outside scales)—that is placed in a relationship that is both tense and synthesizing, near-coming and distance-taking, in regards to North American jazz musicality, and that this relationship is charged with native discourses regarding cultural imperialism, national identity, globalization and regionalism. In order to understand this dialectic relationship that constitutes Brazilian jazz, I came up with the concept of friction of musicalities, which was inspired on the theory of interethnic friction of Brazilian anthropologist Roberto Cardoso de Oliveira (1964, 1972). Cardoso de Oliveira developed this theory beginning in the 1960s, in order to capture the unequal relationship between the indigenous and Brazilian societies, which he saw as marked by contradiction. The conflict, inherent to the reality of interethnic friction, is explained by the diverse interests of the societies in contact and their irreversible entanglement and interdependence. Cardoso de Oliveira stays away from the idea of transmission, acculturation or assimilation, linked to the previous culturalist paradigm, and directs the focus away from cultural change and towards the continued interaction between the two societies that forms an intersocietal system. This system exhibits, in its core, inequality. It’s not my intention to present here the discussions about this concept, carried out in Brazilian ethnology, but to show how it Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. can inspire a new look at this tension between Brazilian and North American musicality in the heart of Brazilian jazz. As I have already stated, I understand musicality to be an integrated set of musical and symbolic elements that manifests itself in a human community. In the case of jazz, this community is currently international and pluricultural, and according to the native discourse, this community shares what could be called bebop paradigm, that is, a jazz musicality that enables a global musical communicability. Yet Brazilian jazz, as I attempted to demonstrate, while devouring this bebop paradigm, incessantly seeks to distance itself from North American musicality, by enacting a Brazilian musicality. This tension is congenital and essential to Brazilian jazz as a musical genre, as long as it remains stable in terms of thematics (the friction of musicalities is constituent here, exposing itself more clearly in the improvisations), styles (the regional lines and idioms, such as Northeastern musicality) and compositional structures (in the musical code proper, such as in the rhythmic patterns and use of modality). The clash between the Northeastern mixolydian and the blues scale is part of this stability; it is a fundamental distinction of Brazilian jazz. Here, the musicalities converse but do not mix; their musical-symbolic borders are not crossed but instead are objects of a manipulation that ends up reaffirming the differences. The mechanical metaphor of friction implies that the objects in contact touch and rub each other’s outer layers, perhaps exchanging particles, but the substances of the hardened nuclei tend to be preserved. That is why we should not speak of complementarity, as many discourses naively do, since the nature of this friction is not constructive but deconstructive, full of tension and flexibility, and often of irony, such as in the examples of friction of musicalities involving irony and parody in jazz (Monson 1996, Despite the fact that native discourse occasionally affirms that such tension is undesirable--that is, a decharacterizing element that tends to disappear in an ideal future fusion--I think it is actually a very salient constituent part of the genre, a strong identity mark that gives it its national and global character. This friction is related to the common-sense narratives of North American cultural hegemony in Brazil and hence to the association of jazz to something invasive and unwanted in Brazilian culture. The symptomatic rejection of jazz is connected to anti-American sentiments that partially developed in Brazil, mainly beginning with the nationalism of the 1930s Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. and the leftist discourse of the 1960s, when the cultivation of jazz was associated with the Brazilian economic elite, where jazz was supposed to be considered refined or chic. To listen to and know jazz was a sign of status, culture, cosmopolitanism and participation in North American culture--a cultural passport to belong to a global elite--and a sign of alienation and disregard in relation to Brazilian culture. In this manner, while the feelings that manifest the repudiation of jazz are directly connected to the sociological aspects above, the cannibalism of Brazilian jazz points to a dissolution of the nationalist and patriotic discourse and leads to the idea of multicultural participation in the formation of the genre. Any analysis of Brazilian jazz must examine the musical elements at play, such as motives, scales, chords, chord patterns, riffs, improvisations, forms, dynamics, as well as the embodied meanings in them (Meyer 1967). I find it very important to transcribe improvisations, to play in jam sessions, and to analyse native discourse. The fact is, in Brazilian jazz there are specific rhythmic-melodic inflections and beat de-synchronizations that may evoke a certain “looseness,” coherent with the open and relaxed nature attributed to Brazilian music in general, and nevertheless there is much normatization in such elements, all this is full of cultural significance and ideological implications. For example, the several kinds of drums levadas [leadings], the exact point at which a beat should occur, the often asymmetrical cymbal strokes--seemingly flexible aspects--are actually shared skills and involve much precision: as Keil proposes, they are participative discrepancies (1994). The discourse of natives-- recalling that it includes not only musicians but also listeners and experts--is full of metaphors central to an understanding of the aesthetics of Brazilian jazz, and its study, along with the analysis of emerging musical processes, can demonstrate how Brazilian jazz communicates criticism, emotions and moral and political sensibility. The shared skills are therefore also of a socio-musical order and can lead to the knowledge of the essential gestures of the genre, that is, the rhetorical topics (Agawu 1991) central to Brazilian jazz. To conclude, I shall present my own position on the question of authenticity and how the developments of Brazilian jazz starting in the 1990s point to an increasingly larger distance in relation to mainstream jazz and the bebop paradigm. I don’t think there is such a thing as authenticity per se, or universally authentic cultures or traditions. I assume traditions are inventions (Hobsbawm and Ranger Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. 1992) and cultures are best seen not as patterns of behavior, but as sets of symbolic control devices that exist for a community to govern its behavior (Geertz 1989, 56). In order to choose what is to be considered authentic, the artificial of the past must be seen as natural in the future. Authenticity is therefore a kind of veiling of previous conventions, or as Peterson puts it, a social construction that partially deforms the past (1992). With this view of authenticity, it becomes harder to see globalization as a destructive process in which there is a flow of transnational influences that fully commands the sensibilities of the so-called “peripheral” cultures, making them increasingly non-distinct from the “center”. In other words, the ideas of assimilation or homogenization seem no longer appropriate, since there is neither an actual authenticity to be preserved nor a supposed authenticity of hegemonic cultures. The “peripheral” cultures (Hannerz 1991) can recolonize this flow through local responses, thus dissolving the view of a center-periphery polarization and of an unilateral direction of cultural exchange. In my opinion, there always was and always is cultural change and exchange, as much as veiling of the conventionality of what is to be elected as “authentic” or as “roots” of culture. In this sense, I think globalization is not something that has erupted in recent history, but an intensification of a process that originates at least in the heart of the Western modern world (Giddens 1991). In the past 10 years, the number of Brazilian jazz musicians and bands has increased in an impressive manner, even though space in the media and the amount of record labels, producers, specialized studios and places to play have perhaps not accompanied this pace. The new generations no longer voraciously pursue bebop as the previous ones did. For this reason, Brazilian jazz is increasingly less jazz and more música instrumental. The “mythic” references today are much more Hermeto Pascoal, Egberto Gismonti, Pixinguinha, Radamés Gnatalli, that is, the pillars of this musicality are found mostly in Brazilian artists.ental music is growing and as a consequence so is decentralization in relation to the Rio de Janeiro/São Paulo axis, and yet an increasing number of young people are playing cavaquinho, viola caipira, zabumba and the accordion, instruments that until now had been left out. A much less prejudiced and more advantageous relationship with the world of art music has also been established, and groups of chamber music, such as clarinet quintets and guitar quartets, have emerged, dedicated to playing música instrumental. Indeed, the scenario is undergoing notable internal expansion.s Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. that starting in the 1990s, while the growth of the world music consumption in the USA and in Europe was reflecting an opening towards different musical cultures, Brazilian musicians were looking inwardly towards their own traditions, discovering and appreciating their “roots,” or rather, recreating them under a new perspective. What is now maintained from the spirit of jazz is much less the bebop phrasing and the worship of great jazz masters and much more the freedom of creation and improvisation. In this deeper meaning, Brazilian jazz strongly continues to be jazz, belonging to a transnational musical movement. Throughout the 20th century, North American jazz expanded intensely around the world and diverse responses to this flow were emerging and interacting; today jazz belongs to the world and needs to be studied as a transnational reality: it is global culture.

Agawu, V. Kofi. 1991. Playing with signs: a Semiotic Interpretation of Classic
Music, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Araújo, Samuel. 1999. The Politics of Passion: The impact of Bolero on Brazilian Musical Expresions, Yearbook for Traditional Music, 31, 42-56. Bakhtin, Mikhail M. 1986.“The Problem of Speech Genres”, in C. Emerson and M. Holquist (eds.), Speech Genres and Other Later Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press, 60-102. Berliner, Paul. 1994. Thinking in Jazz: The Infinite Art of Improvisation, Chicago: Calado, Carlos. 1997. Tropicália: a história de uma revolução musical (“History of a musical revolution”). São Paulo: Editora 34. Campos, Augusto de. 1974. O balanço da bossa e outras bossas (“The swing of the bossa and other swings”). São Paulo: Perspectiva. Cardoso de Oliveira, Roberto. 1964. O Índio e o Mundo dos Brancos (“The indian and the world of the whites”). São Paulo: Difusão européia do livro. _____1972. A Sociologia do Brasil Indígena (“The sociology of indigenous Brazil”). Rio de Janeiro: Editora da Universidade de São Paulo/Tempo Brasileiro. Castro, Ruy. 1990. Chega de Saudade: a história e as histórias da bossa-nova. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras (published in english: Bossa-Nova: The story of the brazilian music that seduced the world. A Capella Books, 2000) Cazes, Henrique. 1998. Choro: do quintal ao Municipal (“Choro: from the backyard to the city theater”). São Paulo: Editora 34. Connel, Andrew M. 2001. Cosmopolitan Identities: Aquarela Carioca, Música Instrumental Brasileira, and the (Re)imagination of Place. Communication at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Ethnomusicology, Detroit, MI, October 27. Da Matta, Roberto. 1979. Carnavais, malandros e heróis: para uma sociologia do dilema brasileiro (published in english: Carnivals, rogues, and heroes: an anthropological interpretaion of the Brazilian dilemma. University of Notre Dame Press, 1992). Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar. Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. 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Brazilian Popular Music: an anthropological introduction. Antropologia em Primeira-mão (pre-print publications of the Social Anthropology Graduate Program of the Federal University of Santa Catarina), vol 40. Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. Meyer, Leonard. 1967. Music, the Arts, and Ideas. Chicago: Chicago University Middleton, Richard. 1990. Studying Popular Music, Milton Keynes: Open University Monson, Ingrid. 1996. Saying Something: Jazz Improvisation and Interaction, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Neves, José Maria. 1981. Música Contemporânea Brasileira (“Brazilan contemporary Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. 1999a. Música Instrumental Brasileira e Fricção de Musicalidades (“Brazilian música instrumental and friction of musicalities”), in Rodrigo Torres (ed.) Música Popular en América Latina: Actas del IIo. 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Walser, Robert. 1993. Running with the Devil: Power, Gender and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Hanover: University Press of New England. Wisnik, José Miguel. 1977. O coro dos contrários: a música em torno da semana de 22 (The Discontent’s choir: music around 1922’ week”). São Paulo: Duas cidades. 1 This text is an attempt to develop ideas expressed previously in Piedade (1999a). 2 I do not like the term ‘art music’, but I’ll use it here to avoid the rather inadequate term ‘classical’. 3 One difference between Afro-Cuban and Brazilian musicality can be illustrated by a story that was told to me via e-mail by Charles Keil. When Brazilian percussionist Airto Moreira played with salsa bands in New York, he was criticized because the band wanted each beat and conga slap in its exact Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58. place, while Airto improvised too much. Keil told me about a “Brazilian losseness” or “openess,” contrary to the perfectionism of Puerto Rican music, linked to the specific characteristics of its African roots. 4 For example, in addition to the aforementioned chorinho revival, the natives are referring currently to a “Jabour school,” related to the disciples of Hermeto Pascoal who are developing their solo career, such as Itiberê Zwarg, the group Curupira, Nenê, Carlos Malta and others. There are also several instrumental groups connected to the Mangue beat movement in Pernambuco. 5 A panel that illustrates this diversity is the Rumos Itaú cultural Música Project (see website http://www.itaucultural.org.br). Piedade, Acácio Tadeu de C. Brazilian Jazz and Friction of Musicalities. In Jazz Planet, E. Taylor Atkins (ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 41-58.

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