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Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Chemical properties and biological activitiesof Morinda spp.
Dr. N. Mathivanan, Ph.DandG. Surendiran, Research ScholarNoni Phytochemical Research ProgrammeWorld Noni Research Foundation Morinda citrifolia, a small tree, grows predominantly along the tropical coasts. Itis being used in folk medicine. Antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor,antidiabetes, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immune enhancing activities of M. citrifoliahave already been reported. Another related species, Morinda pubescens, a smalltree grows in tropical regions of vacant agricultural land is comparable toM. citrifolia in its medicinal and other properties. However, no scientific researchhas been carried out in our country and hence the present study is focused toexplore the potentials of M. citrifolia and M. pubesens.
Chemical analyses have revealed that most of the essential elements were present inhigher amount in the fruits of M. citrifolia compared to M. pubescens. But Manganesewas present in high quantity in M. pubescens, whereas Calcium, Potassium,Phosphorus and Magnesium were found to be on par in both the fruits. Thereducing sugars and lipids were present in high levels in the fruits of M. citrifoliawhereas, the total soluble sugars, starch and crude fibers were high in M. pubescens.
The natural antioxidant content was found to be high in the fruit extracts ofM. pubescens compared to M. citrifolia which was estimated by the method of FTCand TBA.
The fruit extract of M. citrifolia and M. pubescens effectively inhibited the humanand plant pathogens. This antimicrobial activity was more pronounced withM. citrifolia than M. pubescens. Further the fruit extracts significantly inhibited theprotein synthesis and respiration rate in human and fungal pathogens. Both theplants showed excellent hepatoprotective effect against D-galactosamine intoxicatedexperimental rats. The fruit extracts of M. citrifolia and M. pubescens have alsosown effective antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced experimental rats. This activitywas more pronounced with M. pubescens than M. citrifolia. The fruit extract of boththe plant sowed good plant growth promoting activity in rice and green gram.
However, this activity was more pronounced with M. citrifolia than M. pubescens. Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Crop Improvement in Morinda citrifolia Dr. J. Subramani, Ph.DNoni Crop Development ProgrammeWorld Noni Research Foundation Among all the new innovations and activities, information technology andbiotechnology ruled the world for the past two to three decades. In the field of Plantbiotechnology, the technical advances have been tremendous and unique in theirapplication as commercial tools to improve agriculture, sylviculture, horticulture andagro industries. Knowing the above advantages, Noni plants were taken for rapidmultiplication using tissue culture techniques at the tissue culture lab in Chennai.
Axillary buds were taken from young seedlings and after proper sterilization thesebuds were inoculated to Murashige and Skoog’s media containing various hormonecombinations. After successful culture initiation at in-vitro buds were subjected torapid multiplication. An excellent rate of multiplication with enough elongation ofthe multiple shoots were achieved in the media. After multiplication, shoots of 4cmin length and above were separated individually and inoculated to rooting media toproduce roots. Enough roots were produced within 18 days in –vitro. Six thousandrooted plants were transferred to greenhouse for hardening. After hardening for 4weeks about 900 plants were transferred to polybags at nursery for further hardeningand field transfer.
Other than micropropogation, Noni biotech division will also enter into new researcharea like: Cell culture to produce saline tolerant plants Isolation and identification of cells invitro Cell immobilization for production of nutraceuticals Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Morinda citrifolia – an evergreen tool forCommercial Horticulture Dr. D.R. Singh, Ph.DNoni Crop Development ProgrammeWorld Noni Research Foundation Morinda citrifolia var.citrifolia, the commonly called NONI in India, and alsoknown as the Indian Mulberry is one of the important plants of Rubiaceae family.
Noni’s broad proliferation gives testimony to its value to traditional cultures. InAndaman and Nicobar Islands, it is widely found through out the coastal region andalso found growing wild along the fences and the roadsides due to its wide adaptabilityto hardy environmental climatic conditions. The noni plants grow in saline soils,alkaline soils and any type of good and waste lands. The whole plant i.e., leaf, stem,root and fruits is known to be of commercial importance. The most important factis that tribes of these islands are known to consume this fruit raw with common saltas well as cooked as vegetable. After Tsunami disaster, it has been found thatMorinda is only plant of commercial value, which is surviving in affected landsturned wastelands due to seawater intrusion. Further study at this Institute shows thatthis plant can be used for rehabilitating the livelihood of farmers affected by Tsunami.
Thus Morinda plant can survive particularly in seawater inundated saline soils andin all kinds of soil in Andaman and Nicobar islands. This plant can come up underthe 50 percent shade and can be grown as intercrop. The canopy coverage providesvery good cover to soil, resulting reduction in soil and runoff losses. The yield ofMorinda fruits per tree initially is 10Kg/tree in the 3rd year and can be harvested5-8 times in a year. The fruit is generally used to extract the juice for medicinal uses.
Morinda cultivation assumes the regular income and employment security, which isthe need of the day. Since Indian economy is agricultural based, crop diversificationis one popular way of optimizing the limited sources. Morinda plant is having itscommercial potential for these islands due to its hardness and plant having nutritional,medicinal values. This is also good feed material for poultry enterprises. If Morindajuice is fed to poultry, it provides immunity and is rich in peptides, which is usefulfor proper growth. However, morinda is rich in minerals, Morinda leaves can beused as mulch material, which provides very good nutrition and conserves moisture.
Thus, Morinda cultivation in crop diversification era is an important option due toits economical importance, environmental adaptability, increase in salt affected areasafter Tsunami, and employment generation potential, assured market system andseveral favorable conditions exits in these islands.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Clinical and Cellular Improvement in AIDSUsing Indian Noni Dr. Vijay Mohan, MDNoni Clinical and Research ProgrammeWorld Noni Research Foundation Noni has got great immunity boosting effect in our body. Nutraceutical, andEnzymes present in Indian Noni enhance the cell growth and fight against pathogenswhich enter the body.
A study has been conducted in Divine Touch Hospital, Suryapet Nalgonda, and AP.,from March 06 to September 06, 6 patients who were diagnosed as HIV patients.
They were given only INDIAN NONI. There was a considerable improvement in theclinical status of the patients. A sense of well being and an increase in complexionof skin with improvement in Hb% was observed in all the patients, with in the 15 daysof Indian Noni intake. General conditions with increased appetite, weight gain, goodsleep and vital data set to normal was observed at the following visits. CD4 count hasbeen started increasing and viral load is decreasing in all patients, were observedmore in the HIV patients who were diagnosed at earlier stages. The study is underprogress.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Review on the Anti-Inflammatory andAnalgesic Activity of Morinda citrifolia(NONI) in Experimental Animals Dr. D.N.Srivastava, Ph.DNoni ExperimentalResearch ProgrammeWorld Noni Research Foundation Inflammation is a response of living tissue to an injury. This consists of series ofevents involving vascular and cellular changes to eliminate the noxious agent(s) andrepair the damaged tissue. The stimulus for inflammation can either be immunologicalor non-immunological in origin. The inflammation involves a series of defensive andreparative changes which is normally a beneficial process for organism but manya times it may be harmful. Allergic and rheumatic diseases fall into this category.
Inflammation is associated with cordinal signs like redness, heat, pain, swelling andloss of function. The chemical mediators of inflammation elicit certain changes ininflammatory processes.
The anti-inflammatory drugs are employed to counter the effects of inflammation anddanger to the normal functioning of the affected tissues. Many of the non-steroidalanti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have been reported to act on acute and chronicinflammatory reactions by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme. In addition toanti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity, NSAIDS cause gastro-intestinal,hepatic and renal toxicities in man and animals (Vane and Ferreira, 1979). Thisstimulated the search for new compound possessing potent anti-inflammatory activityvis-à-vis least toxic effect. Number of herbal agents have been found useful indifferent inflammatony conditions. Morinda Citrifolia (NONI), an indigenos medicinalplant has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcerogenicproperties.
Noni has been found to be effective in allaying pain and controlling painfulinflammation and swellings. Studies in mice have further demonstrated that theaqueous root extract of NONI did show dose related central analgesic activity inwrithing and hot plate tests (Younos et al, 1990), Two types of COX enzymes, theCOX-1 and COX-2 have been discovered indicating COX-2 enzyme largely responsiblefor causing pain and inflammation, whereas, COX-1 enzyme is responsible forprotecting the stomach lining and kidneys. Noni juice selectively inhibits COX-2enzyme while allowing the COX-1 enzyme to continue functioning. Scopoletin, animportant ingredient of Noni has also been found to exert strong anti-inflammatoryactivity. Scopoletin has also been reported to be an analgesic as it significantlyincreased the reaction time in mice on hot plate analgesiometer. Noni has been Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 found to be 75 per cent as effective as morphine in relieving pain without toxic sideeffects of morphine. Unlike morphine Noni is not addictive. Xeronine acts as thesupreme pain killer because it works with Endorphine in the body to numb painand produce feeling of Euphoria. The immunomodulatory action of Noni also helpsin controlling autoimmune diseases in man like rheumatoid arthritis.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Role of Indian Noni on Auto ImmuneDisorders Dr. G. Bharani, M.B.B.SNoni Clinical Research FoundationWorld Noni Research Foundation Causes of the Disorder : Oetiology is unknown
Autoimmune Disorder : Autoimmune disorder cannot be explained by a solitary
cause. Small amount of auto antibodies are normally produced and may have
physiologic roles in cellular interaction. The major theories regarding the development
of auto immune diseases are: Release of normally sequestered antigens, Escape from
energy of defective apoptosis leading to abnormal auto reactive cellular cones,
Shared antigens between the host and microorganisms i.e., molecular mimicry.
Immune complex disease : Autoimmune diseases.
Systemic lupus erythematous, Lupus Nephritis, Rheumatoid arthritis,Scleroderma (Systemic Sclerosis),Psoriasis,Leucoderma Treatment in Allopathy :
Corticosteroids : Inhabits lymphocyte proliferation and cell mediated immune
Cytotoxic drug : Antimetabolites,Azathiprine
Derived from Fungus: Tacrolimus,Muromonab – CDs,Immunomodulating
therapies,Intravenous Gamma Gloublin
Role of India NONI on Auto Immune disorders
India NONI Stimulates the body’s immune system or to increase the natural immunitypower by increasing the lymphocytes mainly CD Cells. Thus increases the immunity.
NONI Work as a “Healthy, Immune System Promoter!”
Morinda citrifolia extract stimulates T. Lymphocyte activity Current Studies have revealed that Noni helps promoting a healthy immune systemby either enhancing an already functioning system or by stimulating a sluggish one.
In addition, as described earlier, Noni is believed to fortify and maintain cell structure.
This can be accomplished by Noni acting as an adaptogen that can aid “sick” cellsin repairing themselves.
Case studies of 20 patients with autoimmune disorders were studied.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Studies on Antiviral Activity and Cytotoxicityof Morinda citrifolia Periyasamy Selvam,Research ScholarA.K. College of Pharmacy, KrishnankoilNoni Pharmacological ForumWorld Noni Research Foundation Morinda citrifolia L (Noni) has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over2000 years and is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, includingantibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory,and immune enhancing effects. The fruit juice is in high demand in alternativemedicine for different kinds of illnesses such as arthritis, diabetes, high bloodpressure, muscle aches and pains, menstrual difficulties, headaches, heart disease,AIDS, cancers, gastric ulcers, sprains, mental depression, senility, poor digestion,arteriosclerosis, blood vessel problems, and drug addiction. Based on this finding,present work is to design the study of antiviral activity of fruit juice of Morindacitrifolia against pathogenic viruses such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV-1(IIIB) in MT-4 cells and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Huh 5.2 cells, Cytotoxic activityis also tested in C-type Adult T cell leukemia cell (MT-4) and Human hepatoblastomacells (Huh 5.2 cells). Morinda citrifolia exhibited a maximum protection of 18%against HIV-1 (III ) replication in acutely infected cells and displayed marked cytostatic activity in leukemia (MT-4) cells with (CC =0.1930 mg/ml). The fruit juice of noni was also tested for inhibition of HCV RNA subgenomic repliconreplication in Huh 5.2 cells. Noni inhibits the synthesis of HCV RNA at 23 mg/mland cytotoxicity was found to be more than 50 mg/ml in Human hepatoblastomacells (Huh 5.2 cells) Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 The Antifibrotic effect of the HerbalFormulation “NONI” Mrs. A.J.M.Christina, Ph.DK.M. College of Phramacy, MaduraiNoni Pharmacological ForumWorld Noni Research Foundation The antifibrotic effect of the herbal formulation “NONI” was evaluated in Wister rats.
Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by CCl4 administration. The extent of chemicalinduced liver fibrosis was assessed by the level of hydroxyproline and serum levelof liver enzymes. Hydroxyproline level and serum level of liver enzymes like AST, ALTand ALP were elevated following CCL4 administration in rats. However treatment ofthe fibrotic rats with the herbal formulation “NONI” reduced all these parameters.
The weight of the liver was also reduced following the treatment. Hence it is concludedthat”NONI” is effective against CCL4 induced liver fibrosis.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Anti helicobacter pylori and uricosuricactivity of Indian Noni Research ScholarUltra College of Pharmacy, MaduraiNoni Pharmacological ForumWorld Noni Research Foundation Anti Helicobacter pylori effect of Indian noni was evaluated by estimating the minimuminhibitory concentration, which was compared with the standard antibiotic drugs.
Uricosuric effect of Indian Noni was determined by phenol red excretion in rats. Boththe activity of Indian Noni results should be discussed. The implications of findingsmay prove the efficacy of Indian Noni used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and gout. Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Effect of Indian Noni on PsychomotorPerformance Mr. P. ThirupathyKumaresan, Research ScholarUltra College of Pharmacy, MaduraiNoni Pharmacological ForumWorld Noni Research Foundation Effect of Indian Noni on Psychomotor performance was studied in human volunteersby digital letter substitution method. Mild CNS stimulant, caffeine was used asreference drug. Significant improvement in the Psychomotor performance wasnoted in human volunteers taking Indian Noni. The effect was more than that ofcontrol and also that of reference drug.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Studies on the Chemopreventive/Chemotherapeutic Efficacy of Indian Noni(Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice againstexperimental Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prof. D. Sakthisekaran,Ph.DInstitute of Basic Medical Sciences,ChennaiNoni Pharmacological ForumWorld Noni Research Foundation Proposal :
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumorsworld wide and is a leading cause of death in the world. The three major treatmentmodalities of cancer are surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Cancer chemotherapyhas long been a cornerstone of cancer therapy. Although extensive research hasbeen done on the development of more effective and less toxic agents much lessattention has been paid to the factors that may enhance the effectiveness of theexisting drugs. No particular treatment fits every patient and some combinationtherapy is virtually required. Side effects occur with all chemotherapeutic drugs,which are more severe with higher doses and increases over the course of treatment.
Researchers are exploring the ways and means to reduce the toxic side effectsinduced by anticancer drugs during the treatment and to improve the quality ofpatient’s life and reduce the pain. For the successful chemotherapy of Hepatocellularcarcinoma we have to identify some natural products that have significantchemotherapeutic and chemopreventive potential with out any toxic side effects.
Noni, the botanical name Morinda citrifolia, is a medicinal plant that has been usedworld wide for centuries having a wide range of medicinal properties. Noni playsan important role in cancer preventive and therapeutic approaches. The aim of ourstudy is to delineate Chemopreventive / chemotherapeutic efficacy of Noni againstexperimentally induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar albino rats. Thehepatocellular carcinoma will be induced in the animal model by administering N-Nitrodiethylamine (DEN) (200mg/kg b.wt.) promoted by phenobarbitol (0.05% indrinking water). The Chemopreventive / chemotherapeutic efficacy of Noni fruitjuice will be assessed by estimating some vital biochemical parameters along withcertain tumour markers.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Studies on the wound healing property ofMorinda citrifolia on mouse cell linecaused by bacterial infection Dr. Kannan. N, Ph.DandDr. Shajuna Banu. Z, Ph.DKSR Institute of Biotechnology,Thiruchengode Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized burn patients. The infection is due to the combined effect of the impairment of the host natural defence system, colonization of the burn wound site and systemic dissemination of the colonizingorganisms.
Avasularity of the burned tissue places the organism beyond the reach of host defencemechanism and systemically administered antibiotics. This constitutes a serious threatto the management of such patients.
Burn wound infections are largely hospital-acquired and infecting pathogens differfrom one hospital to another. The most common prevailing pathogens in burn woundsare Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Proteusspecies, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pyrogens .Of these pathogens, Gram-neagative organisms, Klebsiella species(34.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(36%)prevalence accounted more than the Gram-positive Staphlylococcus aureus(29%) inthe burn wound infection site.
The outbreak of these pathogens were associated with high death rates (60%). Almost80% of these Gram-negative isolates were Multidrug Resistants. Nevertheless, only twoisolates of Klebsiella speceies and five strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were sensitiveto gentamycin, a commonly prescribed antibiotic. Also, Staphlylococcus aureus wereresistant to ampicillin and cloxacillin, but sensitive to azithromycin and pefloxacin.
Although the strains are susceptible, resistant forms have developed.
The mechanism of resistance to the drugs includes reduced cell wall permeability,production of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated â-lacatmase, amnoglycosidemodifying enzymes and an active multidrug efflux mechanism.
The objective of the present work is to study the wound healing property on mouse cellline caused by bacterial infection using the extracts of Morinda citrifolia.
A mouse cell line will be developed containing epithelial fibroblasts and keratinocytecells which is responsible for wound healing. The cell line will be infected by the burnwound pathogen and then treated using various concentration of Morinda citrifoliaextract.
The cell viability and proliferation will be determined by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5,-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Role of Indian Noni in VariousNeurodegenerative Diseases Satapathy, B.H.M.S. MDNoni Clinical Research ProgrammeWorld Noni Research Foundation Oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in maintaining a balance betweenfree radicals produced by metabolism or derived from environmental sources and theantioxidant system of the body. A complex natural antioxidant system exists in thebiological systems, which is responsible for prevention of damage by pro oxidants(free radicals). Impaired endogenous antioxidant system favors accumulation of freeradicals, which not only induces the process of lipid peroxidation but also plays acentral role in neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative disorders remain an importantsource of morbidity and suffering for the humankind. The role of free-radical-mediatedoxidative injury in acute damages the nervous system and is also recognized in chronicneurodegenerative disorders.
The increased incidence of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s diseases,Alzheimer’s disease, lateral sclerosis, senile dementia etc may be attributed to a pro-oxidative environment caused by smoking, alcohol abuse, UVA and UVB radiations, airpollution as well as inappropriate nutrition. The dependence of disease severity onimbalance between oxidants and natural defenses suggests that oxidative stress plays apivotal role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and could serve as auseful target for treatment. A high antioxidant food supplement can prevent or reducethe degenerative changes in brain and spinal cord by enhancing or modifying thebody’s endogenous antioxidant system and also by providing exogenous antioxidantsfrom outside. Indian Noni contains all the antioxidant vitamins, important trace mineralsand is rich with phytochemicals. The synergistic actions of all those ingredients justmake Indian Noni a very powerful antioxidant food supplement that may help inprevention and/as a therapeutic supplement to various neurodegenerative diseases. Itis our attempt through this clinical trial to put forth the evidence for involvement of freeradicals in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and the action of IndianNoni in chemoprevention and/ or therapeutic purposes of various neurodegenerativediseases.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Effect of Indian Noni on DiabeticFoot with Ulcer Dr. Ramesh Bhuta, M.SNoni Clinical Research ProgrammeWorld Noni Research Foundation Diabetic foot is a common problem. It is the leading cause of non-traumatic
amputations of lower limb, majority of them are preceded by ulcer. Patients with
diabetic foot suffers with triple jeopardy neuropathy, ischemia.
The etio pathogenesis is a very complex one starting with evolution of human beings,the walking cycle and complex biomechanics.
These patients need to be managed under the care of multidisciplinary team.
Newer antibiotics, recent therapies and better dressing materials, have improved theclinical course of diabetic lesions to some extent, still the incidence of lower limbamputation in diabetics is increasing globally.
NONI an Herbal Food Supplement has been used in diabetic foot to augment woundhealing, with a long-term perspective to try and reduce the rate of amputation.
Initial clinical experiences with NONI on 10 cases with diabetic foot ulcers werepositive where noni has proved to reduce morbidity.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 To Study the effect of Indian Noni onIndian Paitents Suffering with Diabetes Dr. G. Satish Kumar, M.DNoni Clinical Research ProgrammeWorld Noni Research Foundation Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. The burden ofimpaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes and its complications is steadily risingall over the world including the India and U.S.A.
India has the dubious distinction of being the “DIABETES CAPITAL”of the world withan estimated >32 million of citizen with Diabetes, mostly Type2 diabetes. Hence anattempt has been made to study this problem at JEHOVAH-RAPHAH’S DIABETICCENTRE, SECUNDERABAD.Randomly a total number of 63 patients aged between13-55 yrs are chosen and made into four groups.
Insulins+ Indian noniGROUP-B 6 PATIENTS (CONTROL)only on insulinGROUP-C 24 PATIENTSOHA’S (oral hypoglycemic agents) + Indian noniGROUP-D 24 PATIENTS (CONTROL)Only on OHA’S (oral hypoglycemic agents) Above groups are advised to maintain regular exercise, strict dieting and regularmedication.
This study group showed significantly better compliance than the control group.
Initially 6 paitents showed hyperglycenia (very high blood sugar for 2 to 3 months)then gradually followed by hypoglycemia (sugar levels have come down). SurprisilinglyGROUP-A about 3 paitents went into hypoglycemia where we have to titrate the dosewhere as in group b and group D (controls) shown not much of improvements.
Definitely the patients on INDIAN NONI showed better compliance, increase energylevels and preferring to adhere to treatment recommendations better.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Prevention of tissue biomolecular losses byMorinda citrifolia extract in Gentamicin andMercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity- an invitro study.
T. AnithaandDr. S.MohandassDepartment of Biochemistry,Dr.N.G.P Arts and Science College, Kidney is the major excretory organ that is exposed to various toxic insults leading to nephrotoxicity. Gentamicin an aminoglycosidic antibiotic and Mercuric chloride a heavy Centre and Research Educational Trust,Kalapatti Road, Coimbatore, India metal are well established toxicants that are known to induce oxidative stress andnephrotoxicity in both experimental models and clinical trails. These are known tocause severe kidney damage after acute and chronic exposure.
An aliquot of kidney homogenate was incubated at 2mg Gentamicin and 6mM Mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxic as evidenced by decreased activities of renal membranemarkers namely ALP, ACP, LDH, Na+K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ ATPase, Catalase, with increase inLPO level by measuring the end product - MDA, with concomintant decrease inantioxidant - Vit C, GSH and antioxidising enzymes - SOD, Cat, GPx. Simultaneous incubation of 10%Morinda citrifolia extract along with the homogenate reverted the nephrotoxicantinduced biomolecular losses to near normal. The present study is an attempt to evaluatethe nephroproctetive role in invitro model to delineate the mechanism of action byassessing the activities of renal marker enzymes.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 Agro-climatic requirements and Potential forNoni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Cultivation inAndaman & Nicobar Islands of India.
Dr. D. R. Singh*, Ph.DDepartment of Geophysics,Banaras Hindu University, Climate of a place is an important natural resource, which decides the type of vegetation to be grown whereas weather decides productivity of the vegetation during a season.
*Central Agricultural ResearchInstitute of ICAR, Port Blair-744101. The excess or deficiency of climatic elements (viz: rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, wind, sunshine hour, evaporation rates, rainy days, soil temperature etc.) exerts anegative influence on plant life. Because of their complex effects it is difficult to determineoptimal values of these weather elements for the maximum growth and productivity ofa plant.
The high valued medicinal plant noni i.e. Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia L.) isfound to be successfully grown under natural condition of Andaman & Nicobar Islandsof India ( Singh et al., 2005) having tropical humid climate. Therefore, agrometeorological parameters recorded at Central Agricultural Research Institute, in PortBlair have been subjected to preliminary analysis for quantifying the diurnal and seasonalvariation of major weather parameters in relation to the natural growth of Morindacitrifolia. Mean monthly air temperature remain almost constant about 270C roundthe year. Annual atmospheric demand of water i.e. potential evapotranspiration (PET)value over Port Blair is 1401.1 mm. The PET values were minimum (101.1 mm) inOctober and maximum (145.5 mm) in March. Growing degree days (heat units orthermal time) available under Port Blair conditions are worked out and considered asthermal time (0Cd) requirement of the crop for completion of the various phonologicaldevelopment stages of the plant.
The analysis has revealed that besides adequate annual rainfall of 3030 mm and of highannual moisture index (126 %), the plant has preference to low diurnal range of airtemperature (5 to 100C) as well as in soil temperature at various depth. Maximumtemperature recorded highest (32.80C) during April and lowest (29.70C) during Julywhereas minimum temperature recorded lowest (22.90C) during March and highest(24.80C) during June. This indicated that the region is having narrow seasonal range(2 to 30C) of temperature which perhaps suits plant for continuous flowering and fruitsetting through out the year in the region. Prevalence of high daily mean relative humidity(79-89%) fulfils the high humidity (atmospheric moisture) requirements of the plantfor its natural growth and maximum productivity. Other weather parameters like low tomoderate wind speed (3.1 km /h in March to 7.3 km/h in July), bright sunshine hour Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 (3.3 h/day in July to 9.4 h/day in February) and medium evaporation rates (3.4 mm/day in July to 5.9 mm/day in March) are also not adverse towards the potential growthof Morinda citrifolia. Actual evapotranspiration (AE) worked out using climatic waterbalance from an established noni plant orchard is about 983 mm per year. It is clearthat entire climatic features of the Islands are favourable for the commercial cultivationof Morinda citrifolia. The climatic data discussed in this paper is therefore may betreated as informational material as climatic requirement for growing noni plant anywhere else having tropical humid climate. Hence, in future our efforts should be madeto identify the areas of homogeneous environment and having similar climatic featuresto recommend for successful cultivation of the Morinda citrifolia in our country.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006 An over view of the potentials of Morindacitrifolia G. Surendiran, Research ScholarandDr. N. Mathivanan, Ph.D.,Centre for AdvancedStudies in Botany, Morinda citrifolia L., popularly known as ‘Noni’, has been used traditionally by Polynesians from many centuries. It is a small evergreen tree grows up to nine meters tall, bears flowers and fruits throughout the year. M. citrifolia is a native of India, buthas been naturalized in many parts of the world by human activities. Though all theplant parts have been used in the treatment of various diseases, the fruit is consideredimportant because of its wide range of therapeutic potentials such as antibacterial,antiviral, antitumor, antihelminthic, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and im-mune enhancing effects. The use of the juice from the ripe and unripe fruits seems to bea more recent innovation, and has been amply exploited commercially in recent times.
Noni juice has been recently accepted in the European Union as a novel food. Theroots are used to synthesis red dye throughout the world whereas the leaves, bark,fruits are used to produce facial creams, soaps, lotion, tea powder, etc. The bark areused to make chart wheel and to synthesis natural dye. Commercial interest in Noni hastremendously increased in recent years and there are 19 patens have already beenregistered in the US Patent and Trademark Office since 1976. However, there is lack ofsome extensive studies in several areas especially in anticancer activity. Research shouldbe taken up to explore the therapeutic activity of M. citrifolia available in Kerala coastand Andaman Nicobar Islands as there was no report in Indian subcontinent.
Proceedings of First National Symposium on Noni Research, October 7-8, 2006


Microsoft word - raimo suhonen md julkluettelo.doc

Raimo Suhonen MD, prof. Selection of published papers / valikoima julkaistuista artikkeleista ym. julkaisuista ja koulutustuotteista Allergology / Allergologia • Jolanki R, Estlander T, Suhonen R , Eckerman M-L H, Kanerva L. Contact allergy to phenoxyethoxy ethylacrylates. Abstract. Second ESCD Congress, Barcelona, Spain, Oct. 1994. • Suhonen R . Contact allergy to Alstroemeria

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Separation of Semiconducting from Metallic Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Functionalization with Azomethine Ylides Ce´cilia Me´nard-Moyon,† Nicolas Izard,‡ Eric Doris,*,† and Charles Mioskowski*,†,§ Ser V ice de Marquage Mole ´ culaire et de Chimie Bioorganique, DSV/DBJC, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Y V ette Cedex, France, Laboratoire des Colloı¨des, Verres et Nanomate ´ r

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