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Researchportal.be2

www.researchportal.be - 10 Mar 2014 04:14:33

Research projects (1180 - 1200 of 10149)

Search filter: Classifications: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES (B)

A fundamental study on exchange processes in river ecosystems.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Input of sediments, organic matter and nutrients in coastal seas by rivers and their impact on the marine ecosystem has been the subject
of many research projects. However, the quality and quantity is strongly determined by upstream processes in the river basin. In recent years
exercises have been made to describe transport of water, dissolved compounds and suspended or particulate matter at (sub)basin scale. Models
are defined at the level of description of ecosystem typology of forests, land use, wetlands etc. along with formulation of the exchange terms
between these systems.Where land and water meet we actually find ecotones: transition zones as a result of hydrodynamics with their own flora
and fauna, and related intensive transformation and uptake of materials. Therefore, for an accurate description of exchange at (sub)basin scale, a
detailed understanding of the functioning of such transition systems is necessary.
The main goal of the research project is to investigate how the diverse physical and biological processes and their interactions determines the
exchange of water, dissolved compounds and particulate matter in margins and inundation areas of water courses. These two transition systems
are characteristic for river basins.
To achieve the main aim it is necessary to develop models for margin and inundation area. Multidisciplinary research and integrated modelling of
hydrological transport characteristics and biological (transformation) processes is required. The coupling of different models and model descriptions
forms a methodological challenge in this proposal. Besides general models on ground water flow, hydraulics and biological features, a few
distinctive interaction zones can be recognized, for which exchange processes will be investigated and modelled in detail:
1.interaction of shallow ground water with wetland or terrestrial ecosystems
2.interaction of deep ground water with the water course
3.interaction of water course with the margin
4.interaction of shallow and/or deep ground water with the inundation area
5.interaction of water course with inundations area
Model formulations of exchanges and underlying processes is first and foremost determined by the component of study. There are three groups of
components with their own characteristic 'exchange' descriptions, namely water, dissolved components and particulate or suspended matter.
Nitrogen is selected as an 'illustrative' element for the models. Its transport is determined by processes in all interaction zones and it may appear in
both dissolved and particulate form.
Organisations:

Role and function of specific Arabidopsis xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) proteins in the cell wall
during cell elongation.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: The cell wall consists of a load-bearing network of cellulose microfibrils that are tethered by interconnecting xyloglucans. The projects aim
is the heterologous expression in the yeast Pichia of enzymes that modify these cross-linking xyloglucans, xyloglucan
endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH). Arabidopsis contains 33 genes for these enzymes of which some have a root-specific expression pattern.
The enzymatic characteristics of these root-specific XTHs will be determined as well as the effect of their exogenous application to growing tissues.
This will give insight into the role of XTH during cell growth.
Organisations:
• Kris Vissenberg• Jean-Pierre Verbelen
An integrative study of the evolution of developmental diversity in Anura.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Numerous examples of co-variation of morphological, physiological and behavioral traits among larval and adult stages make the Anura
an ideal model for testing the idea that changes in development may constitute key innovations in evolution. It seems likely that the repeated
occurrence of apparently dramatic reorganizations boil down to ontogenetic shifts (heterochrony). However, understanding the evolution of new
developmental strategies in general, and the evolution of direct development (DD) in particular, requires a comparative approach, in which DD
species are compared with the closest related biphasic species, in independent evolutionary lineages. The presence of such independent replica in
Anura offers a unique opportunity to statistically test the existence of co-evolved 'packages' of traits, and their putative ontogenetic origin. The
project combines the capacities of three research groups to study the convergent evolution of key innovations in an integrative evo-devo approach.
The aim of this project is to decipher the role played by morphological and molecular heterochronic shifts during ontogeny in the ecological and
phenotypical divergence of anuran lineages, through the integration of developmental biology, phylogeny and ecomorphology.
Organisations:

Prediction of type 1 diabetes by combination of biological, demographic and anthropometric data.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Prediction of type 1 diabetes by combination of biological, demographic and anthropometric data.
Organisations:
• Laboratory Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics (LEMP)
Statistical properties of the force of infection, the contact matrix and the reproduction rate : estimation, interrelation and
impact on mathematical models for the dynamic transmission of infectious diseases.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Research on contact matrices play a crucial role in the mathematic modelling of infectious diseases. Up to now only a limited number of
studies to quantify the contact patterns between humans have been conducted. Aim of the study is to estimate contact matrices through a diary
survey in a random sample, and relate these data to the estimated force of infection for certain vaccine preventable infections (based on sero-epidemiological data).
Organisations: • Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO)
Ground reaction forces as an estimate of locomotor performance in ecomorphological studies : analysis of jumping
performance in Caribbean Anolis lizards.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Quantifying performance in ecomorphological studies has traditionally been limited to traits that can be measured with ease, e.g. sprint
speed. For most organisms, however, other functions, which might be harder to quantify, are ecologically relevant too. Furthermore, selection does
not only act on speed per se but on various aspects of locomotor performance. So far, ecomorphological studies have not dealt with the variation in
the amount of force or power organisms can generate on various substrates. From an ecomorphological perspective, the lack of force data is
surprising as forces can be directly related to design traits (e.g. muscle mass) on the one hand, and to kinematics, speed and locomotor efficiency
on the other. Also, forces are important in different locomotor modes, such as running, jumping, climbing, etc. From a practical perspective,
however, quantifying forces in an ecomorphological context has been (nearly) impossible. Ecomorphological research is typically done under (semi-
) natural conditions, on large sample sizes and relatively small organisms. Up until recently, ground reaction forces could be measured either by
calculating forces from high speed video clips or by using a highly specialized force platform. Both these methods, however, are inadequate for
ecomorphological research.
Very recently, a new, extremely sensitive Kistler force platform (Kistler Portable Multicomponent Force Plate) has been developed. By using this
force platform small forces (as small as 0.002N), generated by small organisms, such as frogs and lizards as light as 0.2g, can be measured with
great accuracy. Furthermore, it is possible to measure forces under field conditions and for large sample sizes as this newly developed force
platform consists of one integrated entity (i.e. amplifiers built into the force platform), it is small, light, and portable.
In this study, the Kistler force platform will be used to quantify and compare jumping performance in Anolis lizards.
Organisations:

Identification of biomarkers for bipolar disorder based on subtractive suppression hybridisation and micro-array
technology.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: The goal of this project is to obtain biomarkers in blood for Bipolar Disorder (BP). Such biomarkers facilitate an individualised
pharmacological profile which can lead to a more efficient treatment of patients with BP. Blood biomarkers will be determined using Suppression
Subtractive Hybridization which is a technique that identifies differentially expressed genes between patients and control individuals. The obtained
set of genes will additionally be analysed using micro-arrays to elucidate the differences between patient and control, the different subtypes of the
disease and finally different phases of the disease. In this project we aim to solve following questions: What are the differences in gene expression
in blood between patients and control individuals? What are the differences in gene expression in blood between the different subtypes of the
disease and between the different mood phases (mania - depression) of the disease? What is the connection between the expression profile and
genetic background of the disease? Are these potentials biomarkers also potential pharmacological targets?
Organisations:
• VIB DMG - Applied Molecular Genomics Group
Identification of novel genes and disease mechanisms underlying idiopathic epilepsies.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: In this project we will continue the initiated genetic studies in patients/families with different epilepsy syndromes. This project is expected
to contribute to the understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating in one of the most prevalent and most complex group of neurological
disorders (Hauser et al. 1993). Epilepsies represent a highly clinically heterogeneous group with both genetically determined and acquired epilepsy
syndromes. Most epilepsy syndromes are complex disorders resulting from the interaction of (multiple) genes and environmental factors (Berkovic
et al. 1998). A genetic contribution has been suggested for about 40% of epilepsy patients. Recent genetic studies have indicated that several
epilepsy syndromes result from mutations in ion channels: ADNFLE (autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy) is associated with
mutations in CHRNA4 and CHRNB2, while mutations in KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 lead to BFNC (benign familial neonatal convulsions). In GEFS+
(generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus) mutations in SCN1B, SCN1A, SCN2A and GABRG2 have been reported. More recently, we
described de novo mutations in SCN1A in patients with SMEI (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy or Dravet syndrome). In vitro assays based on
the expression of mutated ion channels allow testing of anti-epileptic activity of newly synthesized compounds. Development of new anti-epileptic
drugs is needed since though existing drugs are efficient, a substantial number of patients do not become seizure-free. Also, mutations in LGI1
were shown to cause partial epilepsy with auditory features and mutations in GABRA1 are associated with JME (juvenile myoclonic epilepsy).
Biochemical and morphological changes that make previously normal brain epileptic (epileptogenesis) remain largely unknown. Insight in this
mechanism might eventually lead to the development of protective therapies that prevent the development of acquired forms of epilepsy e.g. after a
cranial trauma. The generation of animal models based on epilepsy genes will therefore be instrumental in studying epileptogenesis.
Molecular genetic studies of epilepsy syndromes have successfully identified chromosomal loci and genes using a linkage mapping in multiplex
families and analysis of positional candidate genes within the respective chromosomal regions. To date, 20 loci are known for different epilepsy
syndromes (Kaneko et al. 2002). However, only 10 epilepsy genes have been identified to date. Also it has been recognized that the known
loci/genes explain only a limited fraction of all genetically determined epilepsy syndromes, underlining once more the huge clinical and genetic
heterogeneity of this group of neurological disorders. This is exemplified by our recent finding of 4 novel loci, each one being a private locus in 1
family.
Organisations:
• Christine Van Broeckhoven• Peter De Jonghe
Fluorescent live cell imaging and CFP/YFP based FRET analysis of the interaction and tetramerization of the subunits of
'silent' ion channels.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Fluorescent live cell imaging and CFP/YFP based FRET analysis of the interaction and tetramerization of the subunits of 'silent' ion
channels.
• Molecular biophysics, physiology and pharmacology
Cerebellar function in relation to cortex : models and experiments.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Cerebellar function in relation to cortex : models and experiments.
Organisations:

Analysis of neuro-immunie interactions in the small intestine during intestinal schistosomiasis.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Analysis of neuro-immunie interactions in the small intestine during intestinal schistosomiasis.
Organisations:
• Molecular Imaging, Pathology, Radiotherapy & Oncology (MIPRO)
Molecular markers and modulation of therapy in colorectal tumours.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: (part UA) Aim of this study is to investigate differences in biological behaviour between sporadic colorectal tumours and to determine the
relation of these differences with clinico-pathological parameters. This way we hope to find markers that can differentiate between patients with a
low or a high risk of relapse.
Organisations:
• Molecular Imaging, Pathology, Radiotherapy & Oncology (MIPRO)
Analysis of interactions between viral and interferon-stimulated proteins by functional proteomics.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: We aim to dissect the molecular mechanism of interferon antiviral activity agains a panel of virusses by the use of two complementary
strategies. First, we will systematically use two-hybrid techniques whereby association between known interferon-induced and viral proteins will be
examined in an analytical way. Secondly, interferon-induced or viral proteins will be tagged, allowing for co-immunoprecipitation of the protein
complexes, separation on one- or two-dimensional gels and identification of the individual proteins by mass spectrometry.
Organisations:
• Proteinchemistry, proteomics and epigenetic signalling(PPES)
Evolutionary adaptiveness for a highly specialised feeding niche : algae scraping in tropical catfish.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: In this project the evolution towards a highly specialised feeding apparatus, i.e. that foralgae scraping by means of a sucker mouth, will be
studied. Such a high level of specialized feeding has only been observed in tadpoles and tropical catfishes. With a multidisciplinary approach, this
projects objectives are to study the ontogeny, function and evolution of such an algae scraping apparatus in three families of tropical catfishes.
Organisations:

Dynamics in diversity, functionality and stability of mangroves, approached by a retrospective and current remote
sensing approach using new pattern recognition techniques.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: The project studies the floristic and spatial (in)stability of mangrove ecosystems and its impact on mangrove fauna. The changes in
mangroves that are under monitoring and modelling in the project presented, are of phyto- and zoosociological nature and concentrate directly and
indirectly on the function, the mobility, and the possibilities of dispersion of organisms under certain environmental conditions. The project uses
recent remote sensing technology of very high resolution, and innovates past research by combination of biotic and abiotic data in a geographic
information system. The research focuses on mangrove sites in Kenya and Sri Lanka and is carried out in cooperation with the VUB who's
coordinating the project.
Organisations:

Cell death modulation in atherosclerosis : interaction between apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: Cell death modulation in atherosclerosis : interaction between apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis.
Organisations:

Construction and characterization of a transgenic mouse with a knockout in Coch, responsible for hearing loss and
vestibular dysfunction in man.

University of AntwerpAbstract: Mutations in the human COCH gene lead to autosomal dominant progressive hearing loss paralleled by vestibular dysfunction. To get abetter understanding of the function of COCH and the way COCH mutations lead to inner ear dysfunction, we want to construct and chararacterizea transgenic mouse with a knockout of COCH.
Organisations:
Identification of genetic factors involved in mild mental retardation.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: In contrast to severe mental retardation that is usually caused by defects in a single gene, mild mental retardation is caused by a multitude
of genetic factors or QTLs. This project aims to aims to identify one QTL responsible for mild mental retardation in a mouse model. A 'dull' and a
'bright' colony will be bred starting from a single colony of outbred HS mice by repeated backcrossing while selecting for extreme learning
performance. Genetic mapping will subsequently be used to identify the QTL.
Organisations:

Atherogenicity of the postprandial state in diabetes mellitus: study on the interactions between lipids, antioxidants and
monocytes.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: The increased risk of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus cannot be totally reversed by the treatment of classical risk factors such as for
example high cholesterol, hypertension, obesity and smoking. Recent reports on the higher predictive value of blood glucose and triglycerides after
meals suggest that important proatherogenic processes can occur during the postprandial state. In this project we will focus on the interactions
between postprandial lipids, monocytes and vitamin E. The ultimate aim is to set up clear guidelines on optimal intakes of lipids and antioxidants
and thus to restrict cardiovascular risk.
Organisations:
• Laboratory Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics (LEMP) • Luc Van Gaal• Maria Begona A Manuel Y Keenoy
Excitability and connectivity of neural circuits.
University of Antwerp
Abstract: This project combines the technical expertise of the 3 research groups to study 3 topics: the cerebellum, enteric nervous system and
potassium channels. Specifically we will study: classification of neurons in the granular layer, potassium channels in Purkinje cells and their
inhibition of the deep nuclei; expression of potassium channels in viscerosensitive neurons and changes due to inflammatory mediators released by
mast cells; and expression and function in the brain of 5 new potassium channel subunits.
Organisations:
• Jean-Pierre Timmermans• Erik De Schutter• Dirk Snyders

Source: http://researchportal.be/en/projects.pdf?page=59&pageSize=20&classificationPath=B000_iwDisciplineCode&ordering=startdate&descending=false

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