APRIL 22-26, 2013

Biology Student Poster Presentations The purpose of Celebrate Science Week is to highlight the work done by SMSU’s undergraduate science students during the spring semester, as well as to celebrate the excitement and diversity of science. This week-long series of events includes poster presentations and talks by SMSU undergraduates, highlighting their research. The public, including the university and Marshall community, friends, parents, alumni, prospective students, and employers are all encouraged to attend. Please join us in acknowledging the intellectual accomplishments of our students, and help us celebrate the joy of science. Monday April 22
Biology Poster Sessions Library Plaza
Coral Reef Resilience and Tolerance to Bleaching The Growth Effects of Liquid Starter Fertilizer on Corn Eating Disorders Often Co-occur with Bipolar The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Memory Monday April 22(Continued)
Chemistry Student Presentations
Donepezil: Development of an Effective Treatment for Comparative Analysis of GC, HPLC, and Spectrophotometric Methods for Determining Cholesterol in Food Tuesday April 23
Biology Poster Sessions Library Plaza
Using Prostate Specific Antigen in Nipple Aspirate Fluid as a Biomarker for Breast Cancer The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Memory Tuesday April 23 continued
Biology Poster Sessions Library Plaza
Sirocco Peterson-Wahl and Poster #12 Sheri Woitalewicz Allelopathic Effects of Lemon, Mandarin, and Orange Peel on Canola Coral Reef Resilience and Tolerance to Bleaching Inhibition of Multi-drug Resistant Staphylococcus Effects of Various Levels of Water Stress on the Effects of Water Deprivation and Water Excess on Corn (Zea mays) Seedlings Leaf Length, Dry Weight Wednesday April 24
Biology Poster Sessions Library Plaza
Decrease in Expression of Estrus Due to High Levels of Milk Production in Dairy Cattle The Effects of White Spruce Needles on Height and Dry Weight of Common Beans Inhibition of Multi-drug Resistant Staphylococcus Effectiveness of various techniques used to Effects of Water Deprivation and Water Excess onCorn (Zea mays) Seedlings Leaf Length, Dry Weight and Plant Health Wednesday April 24 (Continued)
Chemistry Student Presentations
Comparison of Two Instrumental Methods for Deter-mining Vitamin C Capsaicin Analysis using High Performance Liquid Chromatography The Briggs – Rauscher Oscillating Reaction Thursday April 25
Biology Poster Sessions Library Plaza
Effectiveness of various techniques used to Thursday April 25 continued
Biology Poster Sessions Library Plaza
The Growth Effects of Liquid Starter Fertilizer on Corn (Zea mays) Risk of Adverse Coronary Events of Sumatriptans Effect of Pre and Postnatal Parental Smoking on Teeth of Children Decrease in Expression of Estrus Due to High Levels of Milk Production in Dairy Cattle Effects of Soil Compaction on Height and Biomass of Sweet Corn Friday April 26
Biology Poster Sessions Library Plaza
Effect of Pre and Postnatal Parental Smoking on Teeth of Children Using Prostate Specific Antigen in Nipple Aspirate Fluid as a Biomarker for Breast Cancer Eating Disorders Often Co-occur with Bipolar Risk of Adverse Coronary Events of Sumatriptans The Effects of White Spruce Needles on Height and Dry Weight of Common Beans #1:Coral Reef Resilience and Tolerance to Bleaching
Coral bleaching has lead to extensive global coral mortality. Corals provide many goods and services to tropical nations and irreplaceable functions in shallow ma-rine ecosystems. Recently, concern is mounting for the future of corals’ capabil-ity to tolerate thermal stress. Guest et al. (2012) studied coral reefs in three re-gions and found bleaching patterns within coral populations. Each region’s previ-ous bleaching history and thermal anomalies were studied, as well as current temperature variations. Results showed that certain species of corals are tolerat-ing thermal stress. In concurrence with Guest, Thompson and Woesik (2009) also studied historical sea surface temperature variability and its impact on con-temporary thermal stress. Results showed sites with previous exposure had great-er thermal tolerance. These studies indicate that certain species inhabiting regions with previous bleaching history and variable temperatures are becoming tolerant, however the studies do not rule out other possible factors that contribute to ther-mal tolerance and susceptibility. #2:Effects of Various Levels of Water Stress on the Calendula Plant
Water stress is one of the most important limitations to photosynthesis and, therefore, to plant productivity and plant growth. It was hypothesized that there would be a greater inhibition to growth and development on the Calendula (Calendula officinalis) plant the stronger the water stress treatment. The experi-ment was performed over a 29 day span; weak stress for 1 week, moderate stress for 2 weeks, and extreme stress for 3 weeks, with the control being watered as needed. There was an inhibition on the growth and development of all levels of stress, with the average shoot dry weights measuring; control 2.97 g, weak stress 2 g, moderate stress 1.26 grams, extreme stress 0.347 grams. These results demonstrate that the greater the water stress level on the Calendula plant, the more detrimental the effects will be. #3: Using Prostate Specific Antigen in Nipple Aspirate Fluid as a
Biomarker for Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting women in the United States. However, there is no one hundred percent effective test to detect it. A non-invasive technique to detect breast cancer is testing proteins found in the nipple fluid. Sauter et al. conducted a study among a range of women that con-cluded that prostate specific antigen in nipple aspirates was effective for detecting breast cancer (1996). However, Zhao et al. led a study that concluded the oppo-site, that prostate specific antigen was ineffective as a breast cancer predictor (2001). Both groups agreed that using prostate specific antigen in nipple aspirate fluid should not be the only test used to detect breast cancer. #4:Effects of Soil Compaction on Height and Biomass of Sweet
Presented by: Hannah Beeler and Jessie Fitzer In the field, soil compaction problems are the result of heavy farm machinery. It is important to understand the effects of soil compaction on plant growth in order to maximize crop yield. To simulate these effects in the lab, six sweet corn (Zea mays) seedlings were transplanted into low (0.4 g/cm3), medium (0.6 g/cm3) and severely (0.8 g/cm3) compacted soils, with six plants in each treatment group. Plant heights were recorded for three weeks, and the biomass for roots and shoots were determined at the conclusion of the experiment. Results showed plant shoots grew at approximately the same rate, but there was a statistical dif-ference between the root dry weights. Plants in low compacted soils had a higher root mass than those in both moderately and severely compact soils. Our results suggest that it is root mass and structure, not shoot height, that is most affected by soil compaction #5: Effectiveness of Various Techniques Used to Diagnose Female
Genital Tuberculosis (GTB)
GTB occurs in genitalia as secondary manifestation of primary TB. It is often
asymptomatic with various clinical presentations causing infertility, menstrual
dysfunction etc. mostly in developing countries. Raut et al., (2001) investigated
the efficacy of the Mantoux test (MT) in diagnosing GTB in women of childbear-
ing age by correlating with laparoscopy. Result showed the specificity of 80% and
sensitivity of 55% by the Mantoux test. Thangappah et al., (2011) performed the
study to evaluate the efficacy of PCR, culture and histopathological (HPE) find-
ings in diagnosing GTB in infertile females. Results showed that HPE and culture
had the highest specificity whereas PCR had the highest sensitivity. PCR with
TRC4 probe showed higher sensitivity and specificity compared to IS6110 probe.
These studies indicate that combination of various techniques should be used for
proper diagnosis as there is no best diagnostic tool.
The Effects of White Spruce Needles on Height and Dry
Weight of Common Beans
Presented by: Mikeal Cooper, Travis Meinders, Ben Tonsager
This study was performed to determine if White Spruce needles mixed into the soil of potted bean plants would affect the height and dry weight of the plant. White Spruce needles were applied to 4 groups of 5 plants in concentrations of 0g (control), 5g, 10g, and 15g, and the plants were grown in greenhouse condi-tions for 30 days. The only significant difference from the control in height was the 10g mixture; for the dry weight there was a significant difference between the control and 10g, control and 15g, 5g and 10g, 5g and 15g, and 10g and 15g. According to our dry weight results White Spruce needles did negatively affect the mass of the bean plants; however, the heights of the bean plants were not significantly different. #7: The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Memory
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used in treating various autoimmune diseases. Alt-hough effective, the drugs pose adverse effects, including impaired memory. Therefore the risk/benefit ratio of GC treatment needs to be considered for each individual patient. Lupien et. al. (2002) proposed a hormone replacement proto-col to determine if memory performance could be modulated in groups treated with different levels of cortisol. The study found a significant relationship be-tween high levels of cortisol and impaired memory. Wingenfeld et. al. (2012) compared the effects of exogenous GCs on memory retrieval in PTSD patients versus healthy controls. PTSD patients showed significantly better memory re-trieval with cortisol than healthy patients in both tests. Both studies show the adverse effects of GC to memory, but also Wingenfeld et. al. (2012) showed positive effects of GCs in PTSD participants. Further long-term study is needed for a clearer understanding of GC mechanism in the brain. #8: The Growth Effects of Liquid Starter Fertilizer on Field Corn
(Zea mays)
Presented by: Jordan Jacobson, ReNae Clark, Chryseis Tvedt Starter fertilizers may be used to overcome slow root growth and the potential for reduced nutrient uptake. We predicted that the 10-34-0 and Aven-tine treatment would perform better than the other treatments. 24 corn seeds were planted six to a pot at 2 inches deep and 4-5 inches apart in a soil-soilless media mixture to most accurately replicate field conditions. There were four treatments consisting of the following: a control of no starter fertilizer, 10-34-0,10-34-0 mixed with Aventine, and 10-34-0 mixed with Redline. There was no significant difference between the control, Aventine, and Redline treatments on root mass. After day 16, the height of the 10-34-0 treatment was significantly less than the other treatments. The Redline treatment had the highest, most con-sistent health rating throughout. #9: Effect of Pre and Postnatal Parental smoking on Teeth of
Dental caries are a common disease among children. Untreated dental caries lead to problems like in chewing or serious infections. Dong et al., (2011) studied the effects of maternal passive smoking on the dental hard tissue in offspring. Rat offspring were sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation (E20), or after birth and tooth hard tissue thickness and mineral density was measured. Results showed that development of dental hard tissue and mineral density in the offspring of passive smoking rats was delayed. Ausar et al., (2008) studied the relationship between passive smoking, dental caries and salivary biomarkers in children. Their results showed that microbes and decayed missing and filled primary teeth were significantly higher in passive smoking children. Both articles show that smoking has negative pre- and post-natal effects on children’s teeth. #10: Effects of Water Stress on Corn (Zea mays)
Presented by: Mason Bleick, Jake Tews, and Josh Hughes With increasing numbers of droughts in recent years, the effects of water stress on crops are very important. We hypothesized that a deviation from optimal watering (either in deficiency or excess) would result in shorter height and small-er dry mass for corn compared to optimal levels. Corn seedlings were broken into four groups. A control group was watered to prevent soil dryness, 24 and 48 hour stress groups were watered 24 and 48 hours after soil became dry, and an excess group was half submerged in water. The plant height was measured every two days. After 25 days the dry weight was determined. The 24 hour stress in-hibited mean height by 14%, 48 hour stress by 20%, and excess stress by 9%. The dry weights were inhibited to similar degrees as the heights. #11:Eating disorders often co-occur with bipolar disorders.
Patients with Bipolar disorder (BD) frequently also have an eating disorder (ED) such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or binge eating disorder (BED). These ED’s share a relationship with obesity and other health related issues. Anticipating that BD frequently co-occurs with ED’s improves our ability to provide comprehensive treatment for these individuals. A study conducted by McElroy et al. (2011) showed that bipolar patients with ED’s have more weight disturbances, more depressive episodes or recurrences, and greater psychiatric co-morbidity than without eating disorders. A second study (Monteleone et al., 2005) showed that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were altered in malnourished patients with AN or BN, but not in well-nourished individuals with BED. Therefore BDNF levels may be a possible mechanism for ED’s (BED). According to both studies (McElroy et al., 2011; Monteleone et al., 2005), it’s seen that female patients with BD often have ED’s #12:Allelopathic Effects of Lemon, Mandarin, and Orange Peel on
Presented by: Sirocco Peterson-Wahl and Sheri Woitalewicz Allelopathy has received increased interest as an alternative to synthetic herbi-cides. Past investigation of allelopathy of citrus fruit indicate that peel extracts have inhibitory effects on growth on various plants. Possible chemicals responsi-ble include abscisic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, flavonoids, and phenolics. The objective of this study was to determine the allelopathic effects of lemon, mandarine, and orange peel on canola seedling growth using 10 mg/mL peel suspension treatments. Mandarin peel and lemon peel caused reduced plant height (7.183 cm ±0.7007 cm, and 8.6571 cm ±0.819cm respectively) from the control (12.17 cm ±1.279 cm). Mandarin peel also caused reduced dry weight (0.914 g, ±0.071 g) from the control (1.179 g, ±0.056 g). Thus, mandarin peel has inhibitory allelopathic effects on canola seedling height and dry weight, and lemon has inhibitory allelopathic effects on plant height. #13:Risk of Adverse Coronary Events of Sumatriptans
Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder that affects 18% of female and 6%
of male in the United States. Triptans are the preferred drug for migraine treat-
ment, however its vascular effects in peripheral arteries and vasoconstriction in
coronary arteries in patients with cardiovascular diseases is still a major concern.
Wendt et al., (2006) found that sumatriptan was effective for the acute treatment
of migraine attacks but it resulted more adverse events than placebo. Calcitonin
gene-related peptide antagonists have been considered as an attractive approach
for migraine treatment. A comparative study by Lynch et al., (2009) between the
CGRP8–37 and sumatriptan showed that CGRP8–37 have no effect on myocardial
reactive hyperemic response, but sumatriptan decreases the repayment of coro-
nary blood flow debt following coronary artery occlusion. Studies show that both
sumatriptan and CGRP8–37 can relieve migraine pain but only CGRP8–37 is safe
for cardiovascular patients.

The Inhibition of Multi-drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
byManuka honey
Presented by: Ben Pederson
Honey has been used as an infection treatment for many years but since their development antibiotics have overtaken the market. Recently, however, due to the development of resistant strains of bacteria to some antibiotics, other avenues of treatment have jumped their way to the top of the charts. The first paper (Jenkins, et Al, 2011) investigated the effect of manuka honey and its antibacteri-al component methylglyoxal on MRSA’s cell division. They found that both ma-nuka honey and methylglyoxal do inhibit the cell division of MRSA with great effectiveness. The second paper (Jenkins, et Al, 2012) focused on the effect of combining manuka honey with various antibiotics to be used to fight MRSA infec-tions. They found that when combined with manuka honey, previously ineffective antibiotics kill bacteria with great results. Manuka honey is an extremely effective treatment for MRSA infections but more research should be done as to the mech-anism in which it works. #15: Decrease in Expression of Estrus Due to High Levels of Milk
Production in Dairy Cattle
Low estrous-detection rate (<50%) has been a challenge in achieving reproduc-tive efficiency in most U.S dairy herds. At detection of estrous the cow should be bred immediately to ensure successful conception. Here I am evaluating the stud-ies investigating the relationship between milk production and estrus detection. Lopez et al. (2004) studied this relationship in dairy cows. At calving Holstein cows were monitored for high or low production of milk, and then observed for estrous via transmitters. As milk production increased, estrous duration de-creased. Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is administered to cows to further increase milk production. Rivera et al. (2010) studied the effects of milk production increase due to an rbST treatment on expression of estrus. Lactating Holstein cows were administered an rbST treatment at ten day intervals; trans-mitters recorded estrous. Results confirmed due to administration of rbST es-trous behavior decreased. Mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain un-known. 17 Mon 3:30
Donepezil: Development of an Effective Treatment for Alzhei-mer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. It cost an estimated $172 billion in healthcare in 2010 and affects approximately 35 million people globally. Research has shown that Alzheimer’s disease patients have a reduced amount of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Drugs such as Donepezil have been developed to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine into choline and acetate. Donepezil temporarily controls the be-havioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer’s, and it is currently the only drug available for all stages of the disease. I will be discussing the discovery of Donepezil, its mode of action, and its synthesis, which includes an aldol con-densation followed by a reduction and formation of a quaternary ammonium salt. Presented by: Jenna Carlson and Molly Manthe Research has been conducted on possible electrochemical reduction pathways of various herbicides and their abilities to inhibit plant growth. Our focus was on the compound cyanazine (2-{[4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazin-2-yl]amino}-2-methylpropionitrile). Cyanazine is a triazine herbicide used to control broad-leafed weeds by interfering with the plant’s photosynthetic electron transport chain. An electrochemical study was done using a Controlled Growth Mercury Electrode (CGME). Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) as well as Differential Pulse Strip-ping Voltammetry (DPSV) indicated the reduction of cyanazine is an irreversible process involving multiple electron transfers. Further research will include deter-mining the exact number of electrons involved in the process, as well as the structure of the reduction product to eventually determine its efficiency as an herbicide. 19 Mon 4:00 pm
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) refer to a group of diseases of the blood and bone mar-row that can affect red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets, or any combination of the three. Currently, MDS has no treatments other than intensive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Decitabine (Dacogen) is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor that has recently been approved as a treatment for MDS. Pliml and Sorm first synthesized decita-bine in 1964 through a four-step procedure. In 1970, a different synthesis method using glycosylation was developed; however, this method had a yield of only 7% of the b-anomer. Piskala et al. patented the current manufacturing method of decitabine, which allowed for high yield as well as high purity. The development of decitabine, as well as improved syntheses methods providing higher yields and purity, could provide a promising future for DNA methyltransferase inhibitors in the treatment of cancer. 20 Mon 4:15 pm
Comparative Analysis of GC, HPLC, and Spectrophotometic Analysis for Determining Cholesterol in Food Cholesterol is a steroid alcohol found in cell membrane which is important in producing many steroidal hormones, provitamin D3, bile acid and is found in dairy and animal prod-ucts like meat, milk and eggs. Association of cholesterol with coronary heart diseases in human beings makes its study important. Investigations were done either on comparison of extraction methods or on the basis of analytical equipments. In this study Bohac (1984), Beyer & Jensen (1989) and Queensland Health Science Institute, Australia (QSE-CAM-004) were the extraction methods used to analyze the cholesterol extracts using HPLC, GC and Spectrophotometer. Result showed that HPLC system had precision of 97.5%, limit of detection 0.08 µg and coefficient variation of 4.94% whereas Bohac extraction method had percentage recovery of 96.53%, linearity of r2>0.99 and effective range of 0.0-0.75 mg/ml. Hence, best result could be produced when HPLC and Bohac extraction method were combinely used for cholesterol extraction. 21 Wed 3:30 pm
Comparison of Two Different Instrumental Methods for Determining Vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid) is not produced sufficiently in our body and is needed in the diet. Hence, intake of vitamin C in proper amount through fruits and vegetable is essential to protect and prevent our body. In this presenta-tion, two methods of analyzing vitamin C are described and compared. Moham-med et al., (2009) studied a simple UV-spectrometer method that involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid by bromine water in the pres-ence of acetic acid for the determination of vitamin C content in fruits and vege-tables. Brause et al., (2002) developed a liquid chromatography (LC) procedure for the determination of vitamin C in foods at 5-6mg/100g, following dissolution of sample in water. Studies show that spectrophotometric and liquid chromatog-raphy is an effective method for vitamin C determination. 22 Mon 3:45 pm
Capsaicin Analysis using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Peppers are known to be an important aspect of meals because they are regularly used as spices. The burning and hot sensation of peppers comes in large part from capsaicin, which is a type of capsaicinoid. The biosynthesis of capsaicin involves the condensation of vanillylamine and 8-methyl nonenoic acid by the action of the enzyme capsaicin synthase. The aim of this study was to quantify capsaicin in a variety of hot pepper sauces using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC is a highly improved form of column chromatography that is a commonly used to identify and separate a variety of compounds. This study is part of an effort to provide students with more HPLC experience by developing and refining HPLC-based experiments for use in organic and biochemistry labs. 23 Wed. 4:00 pm
This new nitration experiment is designed to teach students about electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) and to show them how to nitrate a starting material to a mono-nitrated product and subsequently to a di-nitrated product. Students are able to predict the products and then use nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, to see how the spectra change from the starting material to the mono-nitrated product to the di-nitrated product. This is a great experiment to teach students about EAS, how nitration can be carried out in a stepwise manner, and determin-ing products using NMR. The procedure for this reaction results in formation of the mono-nitrated product under cold conditions and the di-nitrated product under hot conditions. This experiment is unique because no other published ni-tration experiment uses a stepwise procedure. 24 Wed 4:15 pm
Aspirin is a common over-the-counter drug that has been used for decades to aid in pain management. The key component in aspirin is salicylic acid which is a simple organic molecule that is naturally found in willow leaves and barks. Its pain relief properties have been known since ancient times. Since then, the sali-cylic acid has been synthesized through the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction. In this reac-tion, the reactants sodium phenoxide and carbon dioxide are heated under pres-sure to ultimately result in salicyclic acid. From here, by adding an acetyl group, manufacturers are able to produce aspirin. Aspirin belongs to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug family (NSAIDs) and is an effective drug for many ail-ments, including fever, headaches, and swelling from arthritis or injury. With so many diverse uses, aspirin is a widely used and frequently recommended drug. 25 Wed 4:30 pm
The Briggs – Rauscher Oscillating Reaction Oscillating systems are common in nature. Some examples are predator – prey interactions, heartbeats, and firefly flashes. The Briggs – Rauscher Oscillating Reaction has a timescale that can be easier to study than natu-ral systems; it can be used to model the more complicated, natural oscil-lating. Think Science!


Cacap-may 2011.vp

LETTER TO THE PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY SECTION EDITOR Reversible Oral Dyskinesia Associated with Quetiapine in an Adolescent: A Case-Report mg in the evening) and methotrimeprazine was temporarilyincreased to 70 mg daily (as 15 mg morning, noon and eveningThere are published reports (Mehler-Wex, Roamnos,and 25 mg at bedtime). One week after these dose increases heKircheiner & Schulze, 2008;

Ir 3 medical

IR 3 Medical A Medical surveillance handout: Inactive tuberculosis . Error! Bookmark not defined. IR 3 Medical Updates to chapter Listing by date: Date: 2011-02-24 Updated version of the Medical Surveillance Handout for Inactive Tuberculosis or other Urgent Complex Non-Infectious Tuberculosis replaces the older version in Appendix A. Date: 2010-04-22 Changes were made

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