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1) Polyester Resin2) Components3) Characteristics of Polyester Resin4) Methods of POLYESTER RESIN
Polyester resin material is a three-component material. However, the manufacturer mixes the two reactive parts. At the time of application, a catalyst is added to start the reaction. Then the material is sprayed onto the roadway. Refl ective beads are added using a separate gun located directly behind the paint gun. COMPONENTS
The material is composed of pigments that are very similar to those used in other pavement markings. The pigments are used to impart color, hiding and other desirable properties, like all other markings. However, these pigments are pre-ground prior to being blended into the resin.
The marking has polyester resin that is mixed with a reactive solvent, a styrene compound. Normally, solvents are expected to evaporate and not participate in the setting up process. In addition to acting as a solvent, the styrene participates in the polymerization process. In order for this material to begin to react, a catalyst must be added to initiate the reaction. Additives
Driers are added to assist in the curing process.
Refl ective Beads
Beads are uniformly applied across the entire width of the marking by either a gravity or pressurized bead applicator located immediately behind the polyester spray gun. Beads are generally applied at a rate of 8 lb/gal.
The material has the potential to be 100 percent solid. This depends on how fast the reaction takes place. The styrene is volatile prior to the reaction. Heat is not typically added to the system except when cure time is expected to be long, such as on cool spring or fall days. The catalyst is added to drive the reaction. Usually, the catalyst is methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) or benzoyl peroxide. The polyester resin and the styrene solvent react together to crosslink, or polymerize, to form a fi lm. The polyester resin system will not cure properly if the appropriate quantity of catalyst is not added.
• Essentially two components in one container Disadvantages
• Peroxide catalyst is a very reactive oxidizer • Requires placarding as a hazardous material • Flush solvent is fl ammable and a hazardous waste • Moisture in surface a major factor and detriment • Set up time depends on type of resin (usually 3-20 minutes) • Diffi cult to determine whether mixed properly METHODS OF APPLICATION
The catalyst can be added by either external or internal mixing. External mixing requires the use of two guns; one sprays the catalyst into and on the freshly applied liquid immediately prior to refl ective bead application. This is the preferred method when an airless gun is used. With a conventional system, it is possible to have a set up where the catalyst is injected into a mixing chamber within the gun, by which the catalyst is added to the material stream. Atomizing the air mixes the material just prior to it being sprayed onto the roadway. Ambient Conditions
The lower the air and road surface temperature, the longer it will take for the material to react and set up. There are two types of material: a slow dry that takes about 10 minutes at 70°F and a fast dry that takes about 3 minutes at 70°F. The minimum road and air temperature to apply polyester pavement marking is 50°F and rising. Temperature
The material is not dependent upon heat to make it set up. However, the application of minimal heat (130°F) is helpful in the spring and fall.
Pavement Surface Considerations
Polyester cannot be applied to new HMA until the road surface oils have been removed. Concrete must have curing compounds, latency, dust, dirt, and other debris removed prior to application.
Figure 7.1 is a polyester application troubleshooting table using the conventional application method. Figure 7.2 is a polyester application troubleshooting table using the airless application method.
Polyester Application Troubleshooting
Conventional Application
- Use or adjust shrouds if edges are “fuzzy or light.
- Apply small amount of heat during application (no more than 120 °F) Figure 7.1 Polyester application troubleshooting
Polyester Application Troubleshooting –continued
Conventional Application
Polyester Application Troubleshooting
Airless Application
Figure 7.2
Polyester application troubleshooting for airless application
Section 246.01 thru 246.02 (a) (a) Color Requirements Section 246.02 (d) 1. and 2.
(d) Polyester Resin (Type B, Class II) 1. Composition 2. Physical Requirements Section 704.01 thru 704.03 (a) 2. b.
704.01 thru 704.03 Description, Material Types, and Procedures (a) Pavement Markings 2. Type B Markings b. Polyester Resin (Class II) Application and Bead Application VIRGINIA MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS
Section 204.30 (a) (1) and (2)(1) Sampling, Testing, and Approval(2) Acceptance (Requires Cert. I) VIRGINIA TEST METHOD
VTM-94 Quality Control Testing of Pavement Markings Chapter 7
Polyester Resin
Review Questions
What is one advantage for using polyester pavement marking materials ? a) The peroxide catalyst is a very reactive oxide.
b) It is a relatively inexpensive material.
c) Asphalt paving oils used are a detriment.
d) This material’s use requires placarding.
specifi ed thickness for polyester pavement markings is a) 20 ± 2 mils when wetb) 12 ± 1 mils when wetc) 15 ± 1 mils when wetd) 90 ± 5 mils when wet Polyester resin will not cure properly if the appropriate amount of catalyst is not added .
Polyester pavement marking material may be applied over any existing type of marking.
5. The minimum road and air temperature required to apply polyester pavement marking is: Polyester resin is dependent upon heat to make it set up.



Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2009) 64, 1018 – 1023doi:10.1093/jac/dkp339Advance Access publication 16 September 2009Effects of interactions of antibacterial drugs witheach other and with 6-mercaptopurine on in vitro growth ofMycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisManju Y. Krishnan, Elizabeth J. B. Manning and Michael T. Collins*Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Schoo

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Literatur zur philosophischen Praxis ACHENBACH Gerd: Philosophische Praxis, Köln 19872 BADURA Jens: Die Suche nach Angemessenheit. Praktische Philosophie als ethische Beratung,BAUSCH Thomas / KLEINFELD Annette / STEINMANN Horst (Hg.): Unternehmensethik in derBERG Melanie: Philosophische Praxen im deutschsprachigen Raum. Eine kritische Bestands-BIRNBACHER Dieter / KROHN Dieter (Hg.): Das so

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