Litauen. e-government.doc

Prime Minister approved this document 6th November 2000.
Now it is in the process of reviewing and correcting. Final approval by Government ofLithuania will occur presumably from middle of December to January 2001.
During that process your comments concerning all aspects of Concept will be highlyappreciated by Task Force.
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This is draft version of the document. Use for review and discussion purposes only.
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This document gives a brief outline of strategic guidelines on the nature of changes inthe public administration sector once the business management model and IT havebeen applied and utilised. The document does not set as its goal to define the specificcontents, processes or solutions of the E-Government project. The performance natureof public institutions is too complex and defies a thorough description of all changes in ashort paper.
This is draft version of the document. Use for review and discussion purposes only.
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Task Force
Head of Information Technology Division of the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania (Head of Task Force) Head of Public Information Division of the European Committee under the Government of the Republic ofLithuania Deputy Director of Lithuanian Development Agency Head of Information Technology Division of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania Head of Wire Communication Division of Information Technology and Communication Department of theMinistry of Internal Affairs Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Public Administration Reforms and Local Authorities This is draft version of the document. Use for review and discussion purposes only.
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Table of Contents
Information Security And Users Identification. 9 Knowledge and Skills. Access To Internet . 9 E-Government Projects Implementation Terms And Management . 10 The Integration Of Non-Government Projects . 10 Department Of Information And Information Technology. 1312 National Inspectorate For Data Protection . 1413 Public Agencies And Institutions, Public Funds . 1413 This is draft version of the document. Use for review and discussion purposes only.
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1 Problems And Solution Trends
IT offers ample opportunities for the modernisation of public administration work.
The public administration sector has been the target of much criticism all over the world. The reason isthe same everywhere – taxpayers want to see the efficiently functioning and cheaper executive power.
This will of Lithuanian citizens is pronounced more clearly as the bureaucracy and work style inheritedfrom the Soviet times are still deeply rooted in the society.
The improvement of services and culture immediately is seen everywhere: in the banks, insurancecompanies, even trade centres – the accomplishments that public institutions cannot boast yet. Peoplekeep asking why a bureaucrat cannot solve their problems, why they have to get information from anotherinstitution, or how many phone calls they have to make to have their problems solved.
Also, the performance of public institutions raises serious doubts. Very few people trust in publicinstitutions or in the effective use of their resources. Obscure, clumsily written reports, crammed withfigures, do not add credibility to the public institutions in the public eye.
The Government-established the Sunset Commission which set out the public administration reformguidelines to address these issues and outline certain public administration rules.
Therefore the driving force of the e-Government might be the application of business management forpublic administration purposes, i.e. IT use for more effective information management and the creation ofimproved relations with consumers, partners and suppliers. This type of public administration reforms willalso help initiate decisions, their implementations and, most of all, co-operation of citizens with thegovernment.
The application of business models for public administration opens new huge vistas for close co-operation of citizens with public institutions, transparent management and proper accountability. It givescitizen absolutely new opportunities to co-operate and work with public institutions any time andanywhere.
With the implementation of this concept, the development of e-commerce, society computerisation anduse of Internet will be promoted. E-commerce promoters define the shortage of on-line purchases andlack of users as key reasons precluding the development of e-commerce. Regrettably, Lithuanian onlineinformation is rather scarce: even some of those companies, that have web pages do not renewinformation they have on a continual basis, therefore quickly it becomes useless.
Hence, the close circle is formed – a relatively small number of users do not promote e-commerce andslow business does not produce more users.
Implementing the E-Government projects will create the Internet services that will facilitate easy access topublic institutions. Certainly, very soon there will appear a relatively large number of users willing toreceive Government services via digital channels and get familiar with these services along the way.
It is quite reasonable to suppose that Internet users and receivers of Government services on the Internetwill soon expect to receive the same quality of services and from commerce. This means the sizeableincrease of the number of customers and the demand of Internet services. The increase of customers anddemand will lead to e-commerce growth and supply increase. It will encourage people who have nocomputers to purchase them and start using e-commerce services.
Thus, E-Government project implementation will help us to break the vicious circle, what will inevitablyincrease the demand and supply of Internet.
This is draft version of the document. Use for review and discussion purposes only.
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2 Objectives And Tasks
2.1 Objective
To develop effective means that will allow adapting public administration to modern needs. To analyseand reform decision-making process in the degree that public administration should suit the modernmanagement knowledge. To increase the speed of the services of public institutions and improve theirquality by applying IT for data processing, management and services delivery through digital channels.
2.2 Tasks
To deliver all Government services on the Internet (whatever services can be delivered by electronicchannels) by 2005.
To develop an effective framework that will put the E-Government Concept into practice.
3 Strategic Trends
The E-Government is implemented on two separate levels that basically differ in the implementationexecution mechanisms, necessary funds and performance. However, the implementation of one levelregardless of another would be ineffective or even impossible.
The computerisation and integration of the public institutions information. The information system(systems) for the effective use of information available must be put into place. The next step isinformation integration between institutions. Lithuania has made significant progress in the above area. A majority of public institutions havebeen computerised and now use various databases. Institutions usually have a local areanetwork and through VIKT (the computer network of public institutions) have possibilities for thedata exchange and Internet access. Some institutions have already installed workflow systemswithin the framework of the VADIS project, while others are still in progress.
On the other hand, there have been no standard data exchange procedures or protocols so far;the security requirements of computer networks have not been met, integration of databases invarious agencies is still lacking. All of it precludes the wider use of information management. Acomment: The presentation of public information on the net is in Sweden supported by the factthat all government documents, also sent between public authorities, even local authorities, areautomatically public (if there is no secrecy decision in each case). If there is no such publicityrequirement, will the amount of documents really be sufficient to create enough public interest? Services delivered for consumers via digital channels outside the institution. There must be asystem interface, which will give access to all necessary public information for a businesscompany or a citizen as well as place an order online and/or receive Internet services.
This field is still a novelty in Lithuania. So far the use of Internet has been focused on theinformation aspect only. Internet services are still very rarely used. Nearly all Governmentservices on the Internet are free of charge. On this plane, the mechanism of links with customers(delivery of services) and suppliers (e-purchases) must be developed soon.
The execution of same services model will give rise to security and identification problems (PublicKey Infrastructure), essentially new kind of difficulties of the contacts of public servants withcustomers, and the need for reducing state involvement in addressing service delivery issues.
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4 Principles
4.1 General Principles
1. All services delivered by the Government must be gradually placed on the Internet by 2005 (not including services where the physical presence of a public representative is a necessity). Delivery ofservices by the means of Internet for businesses will be a priority.
2. With the creation of new ways of the delivery of services, former service delivery means should be left intact; it should be also assured that with the growth of the numbers of Internet customers, resourcesfor the maintenance of the usual means of the customer services should be reduced.
3. Non-digital services cannot be discontinued until its has been assured that all present or potential customer have access and know (or can otherwise) how to use new service delivery means.
4. Public information must be easy to accede. To make the Internet an important and reliable information source all public information must be easy to accede on the Internet. It must be logicallystructured, with information research and the initial research window (according to the so-called ‘onestop shop’ principle) installed. Information preparation and submission system for consumers will bedefined in the ‘Government Portal’ concept and given a priority status.
5. Inquiries sent by e-mail should gain the same status as sent by ordinary mail – these inquiries should be processed in line with the same procedures. (Comment: Inquiries sent by e-mail are in Swedengiven the same internal treatment as ordinary letters, they are for example registered and madepublic in our registers lika any other letter. Here, however, there is a problem because internal e-mailand e-mail regarded as “ordinary telephone calls” are not treated in this formal way.) The inquirymight get no response only if the sender’s e-mail address is incorrect or due to the ‘spaming’ contentsof the letter.
6. IT introduction will inevitably change legal environment; it will inevitably result in the drafting of relevant legislation regulating e-Government activities and change of certain present laws in force aswell as the development of by-laws (e.g. the above legislation on the dissemination of publicinformation on the Internet and the recognition of the validity of e-mail and amended publicprocurement laws).
7. The development of the new services of the Government should include their delivery through digital channels. The legislation submitted by the Government will present no obstacles to the transactionsin the e-dimension (e.g. no exclusive physical signature requirements or other restrictions).
4.2 Technicalities
8. No priorities will be given to any technicalities, operational systems or software producers in the process of the implementation of the e-government projects. Functionality, security, scalability andprice will be the key factors at play.
9. Internet-based services should be easy to accede by popular and widely used protocols and facilities.
Decisions concerning the type of services should be made according to consumer needs in the caseof every individual project. The delivery of services should be ensured by at least one of popularprotocols. Later, if needed, services can be made available by as many popular protocols as possible(e.g., WAP, WWW), thereby ensuring the qualitative access, better options for a customer to choosetechnologies available to him and equal opportunities for the development of technologies.
10. Information should be structured and delivered through interfaces in the manner of making them freely accessible to a customer. These interfaces should run in line with generally accepted standardsand require no use of commercial software.
11. The Government will create conditions for business to use public information to create commercial services. Information must be delivered not only by customer interfaces (tailored for a final, individualconsumer) but also by data flow interfaces (e.g. SQL interface). Hence it will be accessible forbusiness aimed at additional commercialisation of the Government information. The Government willcreate conditions to use available public information for the development and implementation ofcommercial services.
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12. Information should be available in open formats. The document formats used by public institutions should not make information users purchase commercial operational systems or software. Only fullydefined (with definitions available publicly) and free formats can be used.
13. The E-Government projects can be developed on the basis of a diverse technical base under the guidance of various institutions with a view to different needs. The choice of the decision of anindividual institution will not be regulated in the process. Projects in general and individually will haveto meet standard requirements for the e-Government project interfaces. The exchange of informationbetween projects should also be assured in conformity with relevant information securityrequirements.
14. The projects will have to be developed and implemented in view of available hardware and software.
One must seek to utilise the available facilities and technology in the best possible way.
4.3 Information Security And Users Identification
15. With the E-Government’s intake fast growing, the databases of public institutions will accumulate more information about citizens and many various aspects of their life. Therefore the E-Governmentprojects will function smoothly only if people trust in the state, its institutions and the projectmanagement itself.
16. Public institutions implementing the E-Government projects will have to conform to tight data security requirements with a view to ensuring only the sanctioned access to data.
17. Authorised institutions will gain necessary approval to perform a project security audit and supply data security and technology consultancy to public institutions.
18. The Public Key Infrastructure will operate for the identification of citizens in the future which will infallibly identify a person by his digital signature. These means are vital for the Government todisclose private information to the person it belongs to and deliver services to the right person whopays for them.
19. Once digital signatures emerge in the Lithuanian market they will receive official approval in public institutions as soon as possible by providing information and services.
20. The absence of the Public Key Infrastructure cannot be the reason for the failure to implement the e- Government projects. Wherever found acceptable, for reasons of security and user’s identificationother instruments ensuring the user’s identification (e.g. special name and password registration) anda safe link between a server and a customer’s workstation (e.g. Secure Socket Layer) might apply.
21. The Government will seek to link up the special purpose card projects developed by individual institutions. The universal citizen’s identification card should be developed in a co-ordinated way,integrating social insurance, patients’ fund certificates, identity card data as well as the digitalsignature.
4.4 Knowledge and Skills. Access To Internet
22. The implementation and management of projects demand from public servants new knowledge and skills, primarily – a sound understanding of information technology, business and projectmanagement experience and skills.
23. Relevant knowledge and skills must be made accessible to public servants: • Public institutions will identify basic learning and consultation needs;• Department of Information Technology will organise the effective exchange of knowledge and skills available in the public sector. The same department will have to select ‘the modelcentres’ – successful projects that might be used as models for the public administrationsector.
• The public administration sector will co-operate with Universities consulting and modelling • The public administration sector will have to stay in touch with business to keep up-to-date.
24. One must install a system for the test of computer literacy as soon as possible. Public servant must not be employed unless they possess a proper computer literacy level. Present public servants must This is draft version of the document. Use for review and discussion purposes only.
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raise their computer literacy level (independently or assisted by organisations). Once the knowledgeassessment system has been installed, their skills will be tested.
25. The implementation of e-Government projects will not be effective if part of the society will not be able to access to governmental services. The situation like this is possible if part of the society will becomputer illiterate or will not be able to afford access to the Internet.
26. The Government will take measures to ensure the greater cohesion of society and equal opportunities of Lithuanian people to have access to the Internet (e.g. computerisation of schools andlibraries and Internet kiosks). The in-depth plans of these measures are not the issue of thisdocument. These issues will be covered in other Government documents.
4.5 E-Government Projects Implementation Terms And Management
27. The implementation of e-Government projects should not be treated as ‘one night’ process or otherwise defined period of time. The process has already started: we see it as a long-term publicadministration transformation process. From a general point of view, it is a never-ending process. TheGovernment’s involvement in the Internet must be a continuously renovating process.
28. The head of every public institution will be personally responsible for his institution administration reform and making services available on the Internet.
29. The general financing practise promoting the efficient use of funds will be adopted since allocations for the e-Government programmes will not be earmarked on a separate basis. Institutions will have tofinance these projects from their own internal resources.
30. We see the implementation of the e-Government as the creation and development of individual projects. The co-ordination of agencies and the strategic committee will help prevent the officialdomand fragmentation of agencies and misappropriation of their funds.
31. The global practice shows that the implementation of e-government projects is expensive, though rewarding. Now and from now onwards the Government will not be able to allocate adequate fundsfor the implementation of the projects it planned. ‘The state-and-business co-operation’ will be givenpriority as a project funding model. Business companies using their own funds will (fully or partially)implement the e-government project and get invested money back from business transaction chargesin conformity with the established plan (these transaction charges are covered either by a client orgovernment).
32. While planning to deliver services by digital channels, it will be necessary to introduce the payment scheme promoting the use of said services (e.g. cheaper prices, faster service speed and otherfacilities). Digital service delivery cannot be subsidised unless the subsidies to cover these servicesare lower than ones delivereb by usual means.
33. The Government, when acceptable, may discontinue services delivery functions in certain projects if the same services can be delivered by businesses. It is possible to turn to the outsourcing andhosting practise, fast spreading in the world.
4.6 The Integration Of Non-Government Projects
34. It is clear that the effective and absolute co-ordination of the projects will be effected only in the institutions subordinate to the Government, though the key objective focuses on the Internet servicesdelivery by all public institutions.
35. The Seimas (Parlament of Lithuania), President, Municipalities are the entities falling outside the political will of the Government, therefore their integration into the e-Government projects should bean expression of their voluntary political will.
36. The government shall by various means encourage non-governmental organisations to participate in e-Government projects. They shall have access to all information, knowledge, etc., which shall beavailable to public institutions.
37. The Government shall encourage non -governmental organisations implementing e-Government projects to comply with the general standards for the information exchange, thereby enabling theprojects to contribute to joint efforts aiming at the delivery of quality services via the Internet.
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38. E-Government information shall be easily accessible to facilitate the implementation of non- governmental projects. With this in mind the latter shall need to comply with the standards necessaryfor data protection and their interaction.
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5 Implementation
Implementation of e-Government projects should strongly change the existing life style of publicinstitutions.
The experience of other countries clearly shows that changes like that cannot be implemented without anadequate political will and necessary structures which co-ordinate these changes.
To co-ordinate these projects a special co-ordinating institution should be established which would berespectively authorised and would have enough political support to pool the existing and to find newresources for the implementation of the goals set. E-Government projects have an inter-institutionaldimension and are applicable to all public institutions therefore cannot be efficiently carried out by oneministry alone.
The below outlined short term steps are essential to implement e-Government concept. The co-ordinatingstructure for the e-Government projects is also defined below.
5.1 Short Term Measures
The government in the short run has to analyse, adjust and approve e-Government concept. The concepthas to be presented to the public for discussions.
A Co-ordinator for e-Government projects shall be appointed. A Co-ordinator has to immediatelyundertake his/her functions.
The Co-ordinator has to organise a conference for the authorities of public institutions on the issues of thedevelopment and implementation of e-Government projects.
By 01.04.2001 the Co-ordinator has to present to the Strategic Committee a programme of thedevelopment of e-Government. The programme has to identify the measures that are to be implementedat the highest state level. Every sixth months the Co-ordinator will report to the Strategic Committee andto the public about the development and implementation process of e-Government projects.
5.2 Prime Minsiter
Prime Minister is an initiator and a principle strategist of the establishment of e-Government. PrimeMinister is politically responsible for the development of e-Government projects.
Prime Minister appoints e-Government Co-ordinator.
Prime Minister leads the activities of the Strategic Committee.
5.3 Government Strategic Committee
The Strategic Committee (comprising Prime Minister, Minister of Economy and Minister of Finance; withthe participation of Minister of Public Administration) established within the Government shall have to: establish strategic trend of activities for the Co-ordinator; to support the Co-ordinator in implementing and developing the Concept; to help involve public administration sector into the implementation of the concept and toencourage its involvement. The Strategic Committee shall organise conferences for theadministrations of public institutions with the view to prepare and implement e-government policy.
to help the Co-ordinator identify inter-institutional initiatives; to encourage the establishment and implementation of the strategies of various institutions.
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5.4 Coordinator
A position of high political appointment shall be established for co-ordinating the development ofinformation society and shall report to Prime Minister. A co-ordinator for the development of informationsociety will be personally responsible for a successful implementation of e-Government projects.
A co-ordinator shall be responsible for drafting e-Government development programme. His duties shallinclude co-ordination of all the aspects related to the development and implementation of the concept andto integration of the efforts of different institutions and business community towards the following course: to administer the drafting process of e-Government development programme. It has to becompleted by 01.04.2001. The programme shall include measures which have to be carried out atthe highest administrative level in order to develop e-Government projects; to administer the prevalence of e-business mentality in the government; to identify new inter-institutional initiatives and co-ordinate their implementation to establish strategic priorities for further activities in the realm of information policy andinfrastructure; to accelerate and co-ordinate transposition of services into the internet process; to run the revision of the concept every sixth months and establish further measures; to co-operate with ministries and Ministers in identifying the need for resources for e-Governmentprojects in terms of the forthcoming fiscal year; to monitor the implementation of the Concept and to prepare annual progress report for thecabinet; to organise conferences for the administration of public institutions with a view to developing andimplementing the strategy of e-government projects to co-ordinate the preparation of the manual on standards concerning e-government projects. Itshall include standards and procedures of integration of e-government projects to maintain the network and atmosphere for the dissemination of knowledge and experience to involve interested parties, the stakeholders and broad public into the discussions of e-Government projects and future decision making process.
5.5 Department Of Information And Information Technology
A co-ordinator submits to the department the instructions, the department reports for the activities carriedout to the co-ordinator. The department is responsible for: technical services to be delivered to the strategic committee and the co-ordinator; monitoring the implementation of the concept; monitoring the implementation of concept instructions, standards and development of guidelinesand their observance; consultations to public institutions and support in developing e-business strategies; arrangement of seminars and consultations for the executive specialists of the institutionsconcerned; supervision of the conformity with the general regulations on information management (andinformation security); in co-operation with a co-ordinator preparation of manual on the standards of e-Governmentprojects. It has to include all the mandatory requirements for e-Government projects andstandards on mutual compatibility of the projects; preparation of necessary legal acts for the implementation of the concept and presentation forGovernment consideration; co-ordinating the establishment of general infrastructure and application development and use inpublic institutions.
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5.6 National Inspectorate For Data Protection
Inspectorate for data protection in co-operation with a co-ordinator and Department of InformationTechnology shall prepare plans for the protection of strategic data used in e-Government projects; In co-operation with the Department of Information Technology the Inspectorate on DataProtection shall draft recommendations and instructions which are mandatory in terms of e-Government projects. It shall exercise control over their implementation.
It shall carry out checks on data protection and audits.
It shall deliver consultations to public institutions on data protection issues.
5.7 Public Agencies And Institutions, Public Funds
Partakers of public administration sector are responsible for the development and expansion of theirorganisations’ e-business strategies. Namely for: ensuring compliance with the standards and policies adopted; delivery of services available through public and other portals; taking over the recommendation from other projects; IT knowledge and improvement of skills.
5.8 Non Governmental Organisations
Municipalities and other non-governmental organisations shall be responsible for the delivery of servicesto the citizens and business via the Internet. The government shall not compel or in any other wayinfluence, except for setting an good practice example, non governmental institutions to transfer theirdelivery of services to the Internet.
A Co-ordinator shall show an initiative by inviting non-governmental organisations to develop e-Government projects and shall deliver to the governmental institutions all the information available interms of project implementation.
5.9 Business
Participation of business in the development of Concept and its further implementation is and will remainamong the most important guarantees for the success.
Possible participation of the commercial organisations can take the following form: delivery of services directly or through co-operation with public institutions. This includescommercialisation of public services, like adjustment of a basket of services to special needs andcreation of value added.
showing an example of good practice to public institution through the introduction of e-businessmodels co-operation with public institutions by creating an infrastructure and services for their needs.
joint work in implementing e-Government projects.
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6 Changes
Changes related to the implementation of e-Government projects (modernisation of public administration)will be very significant. Application of information technologies and use of their possibilities will stronglychange our understanding about administration, ways and means of control, the ways of reporting for theresults and assessment of the efficiency of staff work.
Changes in understanding will strongly effect private and public institutions. Changes should besignificant both in client service field and information management as well as decision making areas. Thefollowing changes are likely to take place.
6.1 For Citizens
The downturn of prices for using the Internet and hardware/software, their availability speedily change lifestyles of many people. New services are offered, the existing services are delivered using new methods.
Right application of information technologies will allow establishing: Better access to the information and services; Better delivery of services via different channels; Distribution of services according to market demand, namely by responding to the needs ofvarious target groups; More efficient reaction to clients notifications concerning the quality and content of services; Grouping of services according to life cycles and general events; Involvement of users into the restructuring and improvement of services.
Application of information technologies and emerging possibilities to deliver government services viaelectronic channels opens wide avenues for better services of customers. A necessity to wait in queuesand to arrive to a public institution is no longer needed.
This does not require adjusting to the office hours of various public institutions as the services aredelivered round the clock seven days a week from everywhere. Citizens shall have access to servicesfrom public institutions at the time and place of their convenience as all these possibilities are opened viaInternet.
6.2 For Business
Implementation of e-Government plans will create new possibilities to raise the efficiency of business togovernment communication. The aim will be to increase excommunication between business andgovernmental institutions via Internet to the extent possible, that means any time convenient or abusinessman without any time waste.
However these changes will call for new challenges in business world. Information technologiesconsiderably, sometimes radically, change business environment – principles of work organisation,understanding of teamwork and methods of reaching a customer and ways of goods purchasing. A notionof “production” in many cases is also changing.
Implementation of e-Government will increase a demand for services offered on the Internet in Lithuania.
The customers will assess their quality of services delivered via the Internet, convenience and willdemand new better quality form Lithuanian business community offering services on the Internet, newthinking and additional investment. European and American business has already gone through changeslike these and has accommodated itself to it to a lesser or greater extent. This can be, however, a difficultchallenge for the Lithuanian business, though reorientation results will allow to simpler and moreefficiently participate on the global markets of goods and services.
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6.3 For Public Administration
For public administration e-government is at present and will remain a tool for the implementation ofpublic administration reform. Its ideological foundation is orientation towards a customer and applicationof business models in the daily work of public institutions, as this can be efficiently achievable through theuse of information technologies.
More transparent public administration, personal responsibility of civil servants, clear cut reportingsystem, transparent decision making mechanisms – all these are just a few examples of the benefitsdirectly related with administration.
Implementation of e-Government projects will allow public administration to introduce significant structuralchanges. Administration structure will change better quality services and higher production capacities willbe demanded from public servants. The implementation of the projects will try avoiding increase inpayment funds for the staff, but would rather be done through the redistribution.
Implementation of the projects will be a great challenge for public administration sector. Inevitabledifficulties will emerge in the fields of changing models of decision making, insufficient skills, andproblems of information and communication infrastructure. Public institutions will have to closely co-operate with private sector by creating business models, infrastructure and by providing services to endusers.
No doubt these goals will demand substantial public investment. Project financing will require to find newalternative financial models especially with a view to involve business into co-operation with the publicsector.
Public administration sector will need to put lots of efforts to become adjusted to all these changes,however the results to be achieved will excessively pay of efforts and resources invested.
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National Inspectorate for Data Protection This is draft version of the document. Use for review and discussion purposes only.
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