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Curriculum bds final
PAKISTAN MEDICAL & DENTAL COUNCIL
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION
Details of Courses: Ist Professional B.D.S.
The Pakistan Medical & Dental Council is a statutory body
constituted by the Federal Government under the Pakistan Medical & Dental Council Ordinance, 1962. Presently controlled by the Council. One of the main function of the Council is to lay down the minimum standard of basic and higher qualifications in Medicine & Dentistry. The Council has been empowered to:
- To prescribe a uniform minimum standard of courses of training for
obtaining graduate and postgraduate dental qualification.
- To prescribe minimum requirements for the content and duration of
courses of studies for the degree of BDS.
- To prescribe condition for admission to courses of training for the
- To prescribe the standards of examinations method of conducting the
For this purpose senior teachers of all specialties were invited &
draft curriculum was finalized after due consideration of the comments and suggestions received from the Universities and Colleges where the subject under consideration is taught.
The Curriculum prepared by the Curriculum Revision Committee of
Higher Education Commission was duly approved by Council & is being circulated for implementation by the concerned institutions on.
This Curriculum is to be followed by all the Dental Colleges and
Universities in Pakistan to get registration of the Council for Dental practitioners.
(PROF.DR.ALTAF ALI G. SHAIKH)
(DR.M. SOHAIL KARIM HASHMI)
CURRICULUM OF BDS
A meeting of NCRC B.D.S. was held on 19.8.2003 to restructure the
B.D.S. curriculum into four years from five years as decided in the Council
Session held on 29th & 30th April 2003.
The Committee considered the proposals of subjects specialists in
various disciplines of Dentistry and discussed the following:-
First draft curriculum of various subjects taught in BDS.
Following recommendations were proposed unanimously:-
Nomenclature of Oral Surgery should be changed to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
Prosthetics should be called Prosthodontics
Conservative Dentistry be called Operative Dentistry
Dental Anatomy should be renamed as Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology
Dental Chemistry should be called Science of Dental Materials
It was also proposed that Periodontology, Gerodontology and Paedondontics are the best descriptive terms.
YEAR WISE DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS:
It was felt that Oral Medicine and Periodontology should be independent subjects but till the availability of subject specialists they could be taught together. Those institutions where separate subject specialists are available with developed departments may teach and examine these subjects independently.
?? Where the department of Paediatric Dentistry with qualified staff is
available there will be a separate examination of the subject in final year BDS.
Examination System was restructured as following: -
All papers should consist of MCQs and essay type question.
Internal evaluation of each subject carries 10% marks of the total to be adjusted in practical marks.
The question paper should be according to the table of specification provided in curriculum of that subject.
SCHEME OF STUDIES
YEAR AND SUBJECT WISE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
FIRST PROFESSIONAL BDS
SECOND PROFESSIONAL BDS
THIRD PROFESSIONAL BDS
Periodontology/Oral Medicine will share equal weightage of marks in
FINAL PROFESSIONAL BDS
800 = 1200
ALLOCATION OF CREDIT HOURS
FIRST PROFESSIONAL BDS
900 =1200 hrs
SECOND PROFESSIONAL BDS
950 = 1200 hrs
Note: Paedodontics will have 25% weightage of Operative Dentistry where
ever fully operational department with qualified staff exists.
THIRD PROFESSIONAL BDS
LECTURES AND PRACTICAL AND
920 = 1250 hrs
NOTE: - Clinical hour of General Medicine and Surgery may be extended
to evening ward duties in addition to allotted hours.
FINAL PROFESSIONAL BDS
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
1000 = 1250 hrs
DETAILS OF COURSES
FIRST PROFESSIONAL BDS
A. GENERAL ANATOMY
Brief history of Anatomy. Different disciplines of the subject.
Anatomical nomenclature-descriptive terms.
??Classification on the basis of shape, development, region and
??General concepts of development & ossification of bones
??Characteristics and classification of Synovial joints
??Anatomy of joints with reference to dislocation, sprain and
?? Blood supply and nerve supply of muscle
?? Applied anatomy of muscle with reference to spasm, paralysis,
Cardiovascular system ??Introduction to C.V.S
Introduction to Iymphatic system ??Lymph node
??Different parts of CNS with their brief functions
??Peripheral nervous system (cranial and spinal nerves)- introduction
Autonomic nervous system ??Introduction to parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system
??Skin, superficial and deep fascia, introduction
??Special X.Ray techniques like Barium Meal, Angiography,
?? Histology will be taught concurrently with Anatomy throughout the
?? Underlying principles of histology techniques and staining specific
?? Most of the teaching will be done on stained and mounted sections and
every type of normal tissue will be covered.
Nervous tissue & Nervous system The nervous system
Embryology should be taught with the object of making students
understand and grasp those fundamental principles, which result in better comprehension of the structural organization in the body. Stress should be laid on those developmental processes such as growth and differentiation, which have a direct bearing on clinical subjects. The genesis of congenital malformations should be one of the chief aims. All details should be kept on the essential outline. 1.
Fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst formation and implantation
Fetal membrane (amniotic cavity, yolk sac, allantois, umbilical cord and placenta)
Introduction to Genetics and Teratogenesis
During study of Gross Anatomy, emphasis should be given on
applied points, radiological anatomy, surface anatomy and cross-sectional anatomy.
REGION TO BE COVERED IN EACH PART
?? GENERAL ANATOMY
?? GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY including teratogenesis
PART – II
?? SPECIAL HISTOLOGY
?? NEUROANATOMY BOOKS RECOMMENDED Latest editions of the books recommended should be consulted. ANATOMY
1. GRAY’S ANATOMY to be used as a reference book 2. CUNINGHAM’S MANUAL OF PRACTICAL ANATOMY 3. CLINICAL ANATOMY BY SNELL’S 4. CLINICALY ORIENTED ANATOMY BY K.L.MOORE
1. JANCQUERA TEXTBOOK OF HISTOLOGY 2. COLOURD ATLAS OF HISTOLOGY BY DEFIERO
1. LANGMAN’S EMBRYOLOGY 2. CLINICALY ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT ANATOMY BY
Learning in the anatomy should be through dissection/dissected
1. Continuous internal assessment 2. MCQs 3. Short essay questions 4. Viva voce examination
?? Tongue, Teeth, Gums, Pharynx, Hard palate, Soft palate and lips.
?? Nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx and trachea
The musculo-skeletal system ?? Development of skeleton
During study of Gross Anatomy, emphasis should be given on applied points, radiological anatomy, surface anatomy and Cross-sectional anatomy.
Brain, limb, Thorax, Abdomen & Pelvis. (General consideration)
B - PHYSIOLOGY
Homeostasis Control systems in the body Cell membrane and its functions Transport through cell membrane Genetics Blood Composition and General Functions Plasma proteins Red Blood Cell (Erythropoiesis)
Nerve and muscle The neuron-structure & functions Properties of Nerve Fibers
Including compound action potentials Conduction of Nerve Impulse, Nerve
Degeneration and regeneration Synapses Structure of the muscle Skeletal muscle contraction
Isometric and isotonic contraction Smooth muscle contraction Neuromuscular Transmission
Excitation-contraction coupling Motor Unit Neuromuscular Blockers
Gastrointestinal Tract Structure and General Functions Enteric nervous system (Gut Brain) Mastication, Swallowing and their
Small intestine Functions and movements of large Intestine Hormones of GIT Vomiting and its pathway
Cardio Vascular system Introduction to heart & circulation
Correlation of cardiac cycle with ECG & heart sounds
Physiology of cardiac muscle Action potential in atrial & ventricular Muscle and pacemaker potential Regulation of cardiac functions Cardiac impulse-origin & propagation
Cardiac cycle- various events ECG-Recording & interpretation
Functional types of blood vessels Local control of blood flow
Systemic circulation, Characteristics and control Regulation of peripheral resistance Arterial pulse
Arterial blood pressure (short/long Term regulation)
Heart sound/murmurs Venous return & its regulation
Cardiovascular changes during exercise RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Organization / functions of
Functions of Lungs (respiratory & non
Protective reflexes Lung volumes and capacities
Dead space Diffusion of Gases (composition)
Transport of C02 in blood Regulation of respiration
Exercise ANNEXURE FOR PHYSIOLOGY
Text book of Medical physiology by Arthur C. Guyton.
Continuous Internal Assessment ( as recommended by PM&DC).
a. Descriptive: consisting of short essay questions and short notes.
a. Viva voce: it should be about definitions, normal values,
mechanisms, interpretations. Drawing / labelling of graphs / diagrams. Conceptual questions should be asked.
b. Practical: Two experiments to be performed by the student OSPE
(objective structured practical examinations) should be encouraged.
Organization of Nervous system
Classification of nerve fibers
Properties of Synaptic transmission
Types and function of sensory
Functions of spinal cord, ascending Tracts Reflex action/muscle tone
Motor Cortex Motor pathways, pyramidal & extra
Pyramidal) Basal Ganglia, connections and functions
Posture & Equilibrium Reticular formation
Cerebrospinal fluid Regulation of body temperature Functions of skin
Autonomic Nervous system Special senses Physiology of smell
Endocrinology General principles (classification, Mechanism of action, feed back control)
Biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, actions
and control of secretion of hormones of; Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary
Study of the microscope
Determination of : -
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Packed cell volume (PVC) Haematocrit
Bleeding time (BT)
Clotting time (CT)
Study of Neubauer chamber
Red cell indices
Differential leucocyte Count (DLC)
Osmotic fragility of chest
Demonstration of prothrombin time and thrombin time
Measurement of Pulmonary volumes and capacities (Spirometry)
Examination of superficial reflexes
Examination of deep reflexes
Examination of sensory, motor system
Clinical Examination of cranial nerves
Examination of arterial pulse
Measurement of arterial blood pressure
Effect of exercise & posture on BP
Examination of Apex Beat
Heart Sounds – auscultation of normal sounds/murmurs
Recording of body temperature C : BIOCHEMISTRY
Introduction to cell (Biochemical point of view)
Scientific methods to study the cell Biochemistry
Biochemistry of the Cell and Body Fluids: a)
Ionization of water & weak acids, Bases
Dissociation constant & titration curve of weak acids, the concept of pK values
Henderson-Hesselbalch Equation (No derivation)
Importance of selectively permeable membranes, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, surface tension, viscocity & their importance related to body fluids
Definition, biochemical function and classification
Structure and functions of Monosaccharides, and their derivatives
Oligosaccharides, their important combination with other macromolecules
Polysaccharides, their important examples and biochemical role
The biochemical importance of carbohydrates
Definitions, Biomedical importance and classification of proteins Based on -
Amino acids, their structure, properties and functions
Classification and nutritional significance of amino acids
Structure of proteins and their significance
Separation of proteins e.g. salting out, Electroresis, Chromatography, Centrifugation
Immunoglobulins and its biomedical significance
Plasma proteins & their clinical significance
Chemistry and structure of nucleotides and their biochemical role
Nucleotides, structure, their derivatives and their biochemical role
Nucleic acids, their types, structure and functions
Phospholipids, Glycolipids, Sphingolipds and their Biochemical signation
Fatty acids, chemistry, classification and biochemical function
Eicosanoids, their classification and functions in heallth and disease
Steroids, Sterol e.g Cholesterol, their chemistry, functions and clinical Significance
Biochemistry of cell membrane, chemical composition, importance of Lipid and proteins in membranes, chemistry of signals and receptors
Biochemistry of membrane transport mechanism, active transport, Passive transport, simple and facilitated diffusion
Introduction, definition, mechanism of catalysis
Factors affecting enzymes activity, Michaelis-Menten Equation, (no derivation of equations)
Enzyme inhibitors and their classification and biomedical importance
Application of enzyme in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic use
Chemistry and biosynthesis of porphyrins and its disorders (porphyrias)
Structure, functions and types of hemoglobin
Oxygen binding capacity of hemoglobin, factors affecting and regulating the oxygen binding capcity of hemoglobin
Degradation of heme, formation of Bile pigments, its types, transport and excretion
Hyperbilirubinimea, their biochemical causes and differentiation, Jaundice and its types
Hemoglobinopathies (HP-S, Thalasemia etc) and their biochemical causes
chemistry, biochemical functions, deficiency manifestations, daily allowances and source of water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins
Introduction of digestion and absorption
Introduction, composition, functions, daily secretion, stimulants and depressants of:
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid and lipids.
Biochemical disorders of GIT, e.g. achlorhydria, peptic ulcers, Lactose intolerance, cholelithiasis and related disorders.(Introductions)
Micro minerals (Fe,Zn,Mg,Se,I,Cu,Cr,Cd.Mn)
Introduction to use laboratory facilities / equipment’s
Basic techniques and fundamental informations
Preparation of solutions-Normal solution and Normal saline
Experiments on Carbohydrates qualitative analysis
Experiments on proteins- qualitative analysis
Experiments on Fats- qualitative analysis
Chemical analysis of Urine-Normal and abnormal specimens
D: SCIENCE OF DENTAL MATERIALS
b) Adsorption, absorption, and sorption.
c) Surface tension, wetting, capillary rise
Thermal, Electrical and other related properties of dental
Mechanical properties i.e. stress, strain, stress/strain
relationship and other related properties.
Classification of dental materials on their basis of chemistry
eg. example Polymers, Ceramics, Metals, Alloy and
Impression materials in all respects and duplicating
Gypsum products and investment materials.
11 Separating media used in dentistry 12 Polymers:-
? Requirements of denture base materials.
? Properties of Acrylic Resin as a denture base
materials, their composition, manipulation and
? Types of Acrylic Resin polymerization i.e. heat cured
Acrylic denture plastics, chemically accelerated
plastics, fluid resin acrylic denture plastics, light cured
denture plastics, repair, relining and rebasing
? Tissue conditioning materials and soft linner.
13 Adhesion : Enamel and Dentine bonding agents and
?? Zinc Oxide/Eugenol, Modified Zinc Oxide/Eugenol,
Ethoxy Benzoyic Acid Cement, Zinc Polycarboxylate ,
Zinc Polyacrylate Cement, Silico Phosphate Cement.
?? Glass Ionomer Cement and Hybrid Ionomer Cement
?? Compomers, Cavity Varnish, Cavity Linners, Calcium
Composite Restorative Materials and properties of composites
? Dental amalgam alloys ? Amalgamation process ? Properties and uses of dental amalgam
General Characteristics of Metals ?? Extraction of metals from their ores and their purification.
?? Micro leakage, creep, galvanism, cold working/strain
?? Tarnish and corrosion and their types. Alloys and its types. Dental casting gold alloys its composition, properties uses. Base metal casting alloys, their composition, properties and comparison with casting gold alloys. Wrought alloys, i.e. steel and stainless steel. Porcelain and bonded porcelain as a dental ceramic, classification of dental porcelain, composition, properties, manufacturing and firing and their uses. Maxillo facial materials used in dentistry. Abrasion and polishing materials
Practical And Laboratory Techniques
Identification and manipulation of all dental materials.
Laboratory procedures / experience of Acrylic, partial denture and
a) Restorative Dental Material by Robert G. Craig and John M. Power. b) Skinner’s “Science of Dental Materials” c) Chemistry of Dental Materials by Mc Cabe d) Notes on Dental Materials by M. C. Comb e) Science of Dental Materials by William and Cunnigham
E - PAKISTAN STUDIES AND ISLAMIAT
The role of sufis and saints in the spread of Islam in the subcontinent. Shah Waliullah and Tehrik – I – Mujahidin. The war of Independence 1857. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and two nation theory. The Aligarh Movement. The Muslim League. The Nehru report and Quaid-I-Azam 14 points. The Ideology of Pakistan. The initial problems faced by newly independent Pakistan. Pakistan and the Muslim World. The Kashmir problem. The U.N.O.
The fudamental pillars of Islam. The Holy Qur’an: Sura-e-Furqan.
Hadith-e-Nabvi. Uswa-e-Husna. Ashra-e-Mubshra. The Meccan period and life in Medina. Hajja-Tul-Wida. The Rashida Caliphate.
SECOND PROFESSIONAL BDS
A: GENERAL PATHOLOGY
1. Cell Injury:
a. Terms necrosis, ischemia, hypoxia, infarction and gangrene. b. Sequence of the ultrastructural and biochemical changes which
occur in the cell in response to the following: ?? Ischemia
?? Immunological injury-eg. Asthma / SLE /Anaphylactic
?? Genetic defects- eg. Thalassemia / haemophilia
?? Viruses: eg. Hepatitis / Aids / HIV infections
?? Fungi: eg. Candida Albicans/Candidosis
c. Irreversible and reversible injury. d. Apoptosis and its significance. e. Necrosis and its types. f. Exogenous and endogenous pigment deposition g. Dystrophic and metastatic calcification along with clinical
INFLAMMATION AND MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION
a) Describe the role of inflammation in the defense mechanisms of
b) Describe the vascular changes of acute inflammation and relate these to the morphological and tissue effects. c) Describe the process of chemotaxis, opsonization and phagocytosis. d) Describe the role of cellular components in inflammatory
e) Differentiate between exudate and transudate. f)
List the important chemical mediators of inflammation
Describe the pathway of Arachidonic Acid metabolism.
Discuss the role of products of Arachidonic acid metabolism in inflammation.
Describe the mechanism for development of fever, with reference to exogenous and endogenous pyrogens.
Describe chronic inflammation including granulomas.
Describe granuloma , its type and causes.
Describe the systemic effects of acute and chronic inflammation and their possible outcomes.
m) Describe the signification of ESR. n)
Give two example of induced hypothermia in medicine.
Describe the pathogencsis, clinical features and lab. Diagnosis of Gout.
Describe the management of acute and chronic Gout.
?? Describe the differences between repair and regeneration .
?? Describe wound healing by first and second intention.
?? Discuss the factors that influence the inflammatory reparative
?? Compare wound contraction with cicatrization.
?? Describe the formation of granulation tissue.
?? Describe the complications of wound healing.
DISORDERS OF CIRCULATION
a) THROMBO-EMBOLIC DISORDERS AND THEIR MODALITIES:
1. Explain the pathogenesis of thrombosis. 2. Describe the possible consequences of thrombosis.
b) DISORDERS OF THE CIRCULATION AND SHOCK
1. Define edema, ascites, hydrothorax and anasarca. 2. Describe the pathophysiology of edema with special emphasis
3. Describe the pathogenesis of four major types of shock
(Hypovolemic, cardiogenic, vasovagal and septic) and list their causes.
4. Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in shock.
Describe the defense mechanisms of the body.
Describe the microbial mechanisms of invasion and virulence.
Differentiate between sterilization and disinfection.
Describe methods of disinfection and sterilization.
Describe the principles of aseptic techniques.
Describe universal precautions for infection control.
Describe the general principles of the following serological tests: ?? ELISA – Hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,G) Rubella, CMV and HIV
Interpret: a) Culture reports, b) Serological reports and c) microscopic reports of gram stain and AFB stain.
Describe the principles of proper collection and submission of specimens for laboratory investigations with due precautions.
Describe the general characteristics and taxonomy of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi.
Define communicable endemic, epidemic and pandemic diseases, carriers, pathogens, opportunists, commensals and colonizers.
List the microorganisms responsible for infection of the body with especial reference to oral cavity.
Describe pathogenesis, treatment, epidemiology, prevention and control of the following organisms. ?? Bacteria:
14. DESCRIBE PRINCIPLES OF ANTI MICROBIAL ACTION
1. Agenesis, Dysgencsis, Aplasia, Hypoplasia, Hyperplasia, Metaplasia,
Dysplasia,Neoplasia, Anaplasia, Atrophy and Hypertrophy.
2. Cell cycle and list cell types (stable, labile , permanent) 3. Mechanisms controlling cell growth. 4. Classification systems of tumors. 5. Characteristics of benign and malignant tumors. 6. Grading and staging system of tumors. 7. Biology of tumor growth. 8. Process of carcinogenesis. 9. Host defense against tumors. 10.
Tumor markers used in the diagnosis and management of cancers.
Chemical, Physical agents and Viruses related to human cancer.
Epidemiology of common cancers in Pakistan.
Antigen, antibody, epitope, hapten and adhesion molecules. Innate and acquired immunity. Type I, type II, type III, and type IV hypersensitivity reactions. Classification of the immunodeficiency disorders. Autoimmunity.
THE ORAL CAVITY:
?? Predisposing factors (pipe smoking, ill fitting denture, alcohol abuse,
?? Clinical and morphological features of oral cancer.
?? Benign and malignant tumours of salivary glands.
?? Clinical and morphological features of plemorphic adenoma.
B: GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
Definition of drug and drug nomenclature.
Active principles of drug and Pharmacology
Absorption of drugs and processes involved in drug absorption
10. Bioavailability, its clinical significance and factors affecting
11. Drugs reservoirs, distribution and redistribution of drugs, plasma
12. Pro-drug, Biotransformation of drugs, enzyme induction, enzyme
inhibition and entero-hepatic circulation
13. Plasma half-life of drugs, steady state concentration, its clinical
14. Excretion of drugs. 15. Mechanism of drug action. 16. Dose response curves, structure-activity relationship. 17. Factors modifying action and doses of drugss. 18. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and Receptors
?? Demulcents, Emollients, Irritants, Counter irritants, Astringents, anti-
Diuretics Autocoids Drugs Acting on Autonomic Nervous system Cholinergic Drugs
Adrenergic Neuron Blockers Autonomic Ganglionic Blockers
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents – D-tubocurarine, Suxamethanin
Central Muscle Relaxants, Meprobromate, Mephenesim , Diazepam etc.
Drugs for movement Disorder/Muscle Relaxant
Stimulants of the Central Nervous System: ?? Caffeine, Theophyline, Theobromine
?? Brain stem stimulants: Picrotoxin, Nikethamide, Ethamivan,
Pancreatic Hormones and Oral hypoplyglcemic Agents
?? Provisional Diagnosis, Investigation, Empirical Therapy, prescribing
culture and sensitivity.
?? Groups of vitamins prescribed
?? Vitamins prescribed on basis of therapeutic indication or empirical
?? Single / multiple vitamins prescribing
?? Various groups of analgesics prescribed
?? Single / multiple adverse drug prescription.
?? Non specific indications of analgesic prescribed ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
Anti-microbials, cytotoxic drugs, steroids etc. C: ORAL BIOLOGY & TOOTH MORPHOLOGY
?? General human development
?? Development of face/tongue/thyroid gland
?? Development of mandible and temporo mandibular joint
?? Tooth development and its associated structures
?? Development of cartilages and bones of facial skeleton
?? Introduction of clinical anomalies related with all the above topics
?? Introduction to Post natal facial growth.
?? Development of base of skull Developmental Histology (structure) and Function of: - ?? Bone/cartilage (specially jaws)
?? Temporo-mandibular joint clinical consideration
?? Endogenous implants/changes during tooth movement/wound healing
?? Repair and regeneration of dental tissues
a) Saliva and salivary glands b) Taste and taste organs c) Pain and pain pathway
TOOTH MORPHOLOGY AND OCCLUSION ?? Introduction and nomenclature
?? Anatomic and physiologic consideration of form and function of oro-
?? Brief study of comparative Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology The Deciduous Dentition: ?? Detail description of each primary tooth
?? The difference between deciduous and permanent teeth Occlusion: ?? Temporo-mandibular joint
?? Muscles of mastication and facial expression
?? Occlusion at primary/mixed/adult dentition stages
?? Innervation and arterial supply of orofacial structures PRACTICALS: Preparation of slides with different staining techniques HISTOLOGY: Practical use of microscope, microtome and preparation of ground section of teeth Books Recommended: ?? Orban’s Oral Histology and Embryology, S.N.Bhaskar
?? Oral Histology (Development, Structure and Function), A.R.Tencate
?? Oral Development and Histology, James K. Avery
?? Introduction to Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology, Scott & Symons
?? Wheeler’s Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology and Morphology, Major
?? Concise Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology and Morphology, James L.
?? An Atlas of Oral Anatomy, Berkoritz, G.R.Holland D –COMMUNITY AND PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY
Introduction to Community Dentistry and Dental Public Health: Concepts of
health; disease and illness and factors affecting these states; activities
carried out in the field of community dentistry.
Oral epidemiology: Definition, uses and principles of epidemiology;
Research designs; dental surveys; clinical trials; screening; oral health
assessment indices; current concepts about etiology, natural history and
epidemiology of oral diseases and conditions having public health
implications; assessment of disease risk and predictive tests.
Prevention of oral and dental diseases: Levels of prevention; health
promotion; specific protection; dental plaque and its role in the etiology of
dental diseases; diet; nutrition and dental health; water fluoridation; fluoride
supplements; professionally and self-applied topical fluorides; fissure
sealing; methods of plaque control; principles and strategies of dental
health education and promotion; infection control; protection from radiation
and mercury hazards in dental practice.
Dental health care delivery system: The structure and financing of dental
care, role of dentists, dental auxilliaries and general health workers in oral
health care, dental care of people with special needs including the elderly,
the handicapped, HIV / AIDS patients, school children, principles and
elements of primary health care, ethical issues in dental care.
Behavioral sciences: Health behavior and its determinates, attitudes,
beliefs and values about health and illness, theories of health behavior,
dentist – patient communication, management of stress, fear and anxi ety
in dentistry, child psychology and behavior management and modification
techniques, counseling, motivation and compliance.
Introduction to bio – statistics: Types of variables, frequency distribution,
measures of central tendency and variability in data, methods of sampling,
sampling error, probability, normal distribution, confidence interval, tests of statistical significance, Kappa test. 1. Community Dentistry practical & field assignments:
i Exercise on Models and Extracted teeth ii Exercise on patients in out patients department iii Examination of institutionalized population like school children
i Designing a questionnaire ii. Pilot testing the questionnaire iii Data coding, processing and analysis
C. Planning and conducting a dental health education (D.H.E.) session:
i. Designing D.H.E. material ii Planning, conducting and evaluating (D.H.E) sessions
2. Chairside preventive dental procedures
i High fluoride gel application ii Fissure sealing iii Dietry counseling iv Plaque disclosing v Instructions about Oral Hygiene measures
PRE CLINICAL DENTISTRY
It is not an examination subject will be examined in the subject of
operative dentistry and Prosthodontics in final year. The preclinical dentistry include the following: - A. Junior Operative Techniques/Dental Materia Medica B. Junior Prosthodontic Techniques
- Introduction to dental operative Techniques - Introduction to instrument used in cavity preparation - Classification of dental caries - Principles of Cavity preparation - Cavity preparation on plaster models/phantom head - Filling Materials - Dental Materia Medica
i Introduction of impression and denture materials ii Laboratory procedures
a) Complete Dentures b) Acrylic removeable partial denture c) Cast partial denture d) Anterior crowns e) Posterior crowns f) Bridges g) Relining / Rebasing procedures h) Repairs i) Soldering and welding techniques.
THIRD PROFESSIONAL B.D.S
Core Knowledge and Principles of Medicine. To deal with critical Situations:
Clinical Teaching. ?? History taking in general,
?? GPE, Pallor, Cyanosis, Jaundice, Clubbing and Koilonychia.
?? Thyroid, Lymph nodes, Dehydration, Nutrition, Decubitus, Edema.
?? Examination of Blood Pressure and JVP.
?? History taking in GIT – Vomiting, Diarrhea, Pain Abdomen,
?? Hematemesis, Melena, Dyspepsia, Distension.
?? Examination of GIT – Inspection, Palpation.
?? Inspection, Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation front of chest.
?? Inspection, Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation back of chest.
?? GPE in CVS – Clubbing, Koilonychia, Osler’s nodes, Splinter
?? Inspection, Palpation of pericardium.
?? Percussion, Auscultation of pericardium – Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic.
?? Higher Mental Functions – level of consciousness, Behavior, Speech,
?? Examination of cranial nerves – I, II, III, IV nerves.
?? Examination of sensory system – Crude touch, pain, Temperature.
?? Fine touch, Pressure, Vibration, Joint position,
?? Two point localization, Two point discrimination.
1. Genetic factors in disease. 2. Immunological factors in disease. 3. Climate and environmental factors in disease. 4. Diseases due to infection. 5. Diseases of the cardiovascular system. 6. Diseases of the respiratory system. 7. Diseases of the alimentary tract and pancreas. 8. Diseases of the liver and biliary system. 9. Nutritional factors in disease. 10.
Disturbances in water, electrolyte and acid base balances.
Diseases of the kidney and genito-urinary system.
Diseases of connective tissues joint and bones.
Core Knowledge and Principles of Surgery.
1. Physiological response to Surgical Trauma and homeostasis. 2. Wound and its Repair. 3. Pathophysiology and Management of Shock including fluid and
4. Investigation and treatment of Infections and Parasitic Infestations of
5. Hemorrhage Blood Transfusion and their implications. 6. Management of Acutely injured & critically ill patients including
aspiration pneumonia and embolic phenomenon.
7. Principles in the Management of common Skin and Soft Tissue
problems: Ulcers, Abscesses, Sinus & Fistulae, Swellings, Embedded foreign bodies and Minor injuries.
8. Principles of Anaesthesia. 9. Nutrition of surgical patients.
Polytrauma with airway difficulty and circulatory instability.
Sudden upper Repiratory Tract Obstruction.
Patient in Hypovolumic or Septicemic Shock.
Knowledge of Systems and the Diseases; ?? Head, Face and Neck:
Development abnormalities of face, palate, lip.
Principles of management of Head Injuries and its complications.
Diseases of Salivary glands (Inflammation, Calculus, Tumors)
Neck lumps including Lymphatics Thyroid, Parathyroid.
Blunt & Penetrating Injuries and their Complications.
Diseases causing Oesophageal Obstruction.
Peptic Ulcer disease & its complications.
Conditions causing Chronic Abdomen including malignant lesions of small and large bowel.
Abdominal, Pelvic and Genital Traumas and Hernias.
Principles in management of abdominal trauma
Acute, Relapsing and Chronic pancreatitis
Pancreatic masses including (benign, malignant) neoplasia
Common benign and malignant skin lesions
Wounds / Ulcers / abscesses /Sinuses / Fistulae
Common Congenital Malformatios of Locomotive System.
Bone Fracture & their Comp-lications.
Sports injuries and afflictions of Tendons and Bursae.
Provide First Aid: Resuscitation (ABC) of Polytrauma, CPR.
Collect samples of blood, urine, sputum, pus swab etc.
Understand the principles of pre-operative preparations, Sterilization /Disinfecting techniques.
Understand principles of wound care, Skin Suturing and Suture Removal, Incision and Drainage of Superficial Abscesses, Excision of Small Soft Tissue Lumps, Needle Biopsies, Aspiration of localized fluids, etc.
Have Observed common surgical procedures, treatment of Fracture / Dislocation and Methods of General / Local Anesthesia.
Have observed instillation of Chemotherapy and principles of Radiotherapy.
Pre malignant , Benign and Malignant lesions
Odontogenic & non –Odontogenic tumours
Practical in Oral Pathology to include:
Books Recommended: ?? Oral Pathology, J.V.Soans, J.C.Southam
?? Clinical Guide of Oral Medicine, P.J.Lamy & MAO Lenix
?? Essential of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, R.A.Cawson, E.W.Odell D: PERIODONTOLOGY
Knowledge of healthy periodontium macro and micro anatomy and physiology of periodontium.
Community Periodontal index of treatment need (CPITN)
Microbiology of Plaque associated Periodontal diseases.
Histopathogensis of Plaque associated Periodontal diseases.
Host response in Periodontal Disease Hypersensitivity reaction cell mediated and Humoral immunity.
Classification of Periodontal Diseases Clinical significance of Dental Plaque in the formation of gingivitis
Acute Gingivitis Signs and symptoms of acute gingivitis and different types of gingivitis. a)
(With their etiological factors and treatment)
Definition, clinical features in the form of
Mild, moderate and severe form of Desquamative Gingivitis. i.
Bone loss and pattern of bone loss in periodontal disease.
Adult onset periodontitis (Slowly Progressional Periodonitits)
Adult onset rapidly Progressional Periodontitis.
Periodontal manifestation of Systemic diseases.
(Different systemic diseases are discussed with respect to periodontal manifestation)
Tumour and Tumour like lesions of the Periodontium.
Furcation involvement in Periodontal disease
Introduction, knowledge and the techniques.
Diagnosis of Cause Related Disease. a) History taking b) Examination of the Oral Cavity c) Importance should be given to the periodontitis. d) Differential Diagnosis e) Plaque Recognition
- Motivation, education and instruction. - Interdental cleaning (AIDs) - Scaling and root palning with advantages and
i. Chemotherapeutic agents for topical and systemic
Re-evaluation of the cause related therapy, surgical control of dental Plaque. A) Aims and objectives of periodontal therapy.
i. Local Anaesthesia in Periodontal Surgery ii. Instruments for periodontal surgery procedures iii. Periodontal probing impact and radiographic interpretation. iv. Sterilization, universal precautionary measures
B) Indications and contra indications of periodontal surgery.
Surgical Procedures i. Curattage ii. Gingivectomy with different modalities iii. Flap Surgery with different modalities iv. Muco gingival Problem
- Soft tissue graft - Pedical graft or displaced flap - Free gingival graft - Crown lengthening procedure - Vestibular widening procedure - Frenectomy
Periodontal treatment of medically compromised patients
Clinical & Practical Work
1. Knowledge of the objectives of Periodontal therapy.
?? Elimination of local etiological factor
?? Establishment of normal Physiolocal architecture of periodontium
Findings of medical and dental history and relate this to periodontal dignosis and treatment
2. To be able to secure a good dental history pertaining to:
a) Past Periodontal treatment. b) Present oral hygiene habits c) Past present oral habits d) Presence of Hypensensitive teeth e) Past extraction (Reason) f) Past Restorative treatment, filling types, fixed/removal
g) Past orthodontic treatment h) Family Dental history
Detailed clinical examination and charting of the Periodontium i.e. aceurate probling.
?? To be able to recognize problems of an inadequate width and
a) Scaling manual b) Root Planning c) Polishing
d) Curettage e) Gingivectomy f) Epulus Removal (with incisional and excisional procedure) g) Flap Surgery.
Colour Atlas of Clinical and Surgical Periodontology by Strahan & Waite
A Text book of Clinical Periodontology by Jan Lindhe
Fundamentals of Periodontic by Thomas G. Wilson, Kenneths Kornman.
Periodontology and Periodontics, Modern Theory and Practice by Sigurd P. Ramford Major M. Ash.
Introduction: Significance of Oral Medicine:
1. Oral diagnosis: Histology, general health status, oral examination
(including lips, oral mucosa, floor of the mouth, teeth, gingival, occlusion, salivary glands, jaw bones), examination of tempro-mendibular joint. Roentgenological examinations, laboratory aids, analysis Treatment Planning and Patient Management.
2. Immunity and its impact on oral health. 3. Oral Infections:
a. Bacterial infections. b. Fungal infections. c. Viral infections.
4. ORAL SOFT TISSUE LESIONS
White lesions Pigmented lesions Ulcerative lesions Vesiculo-bullous lesions. a. Pre-malignant lesions, Clinical features, Diagnosis and
b. Disorders of the tongue and lips. Clinical features, diagnosis
c. Diseases of salivary glands, xerostomia; Clinical features,
d. Diseases of Jaw bones, Clinical features, Diagnosis and
e. Disorders of Tempro-mandibuar joint: Clinical features,
f. Disorders of Teeth, Clinical features. Diagnosis and
g. Focal infection: Significance diagnosis and management of
h. Clinical features, Diagnosis and treatment of pain;
5. Halitosis: Causes, Clinical features, diagnosis and therapy. 6. Allergy and drug reactions in dental practice: Clinical features,
Diagnosis and treatment of anaphylactic shock.
7. Special consideration to the dental problems of children and
8. Nutrition and Oral Health. 9. Professional hazards in dentistry. 10.
ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES:
- Auto immune diseases related to oral cavity.
Oral aspects of systemic diseases and their dental
Particularly of cardiovascular diseases.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES:
??AIDS, oral manifestations, diagnosis and management.
??Syphilis, oral manifestations, diagnosis and management.
??Oral aspects of Gonococal Infections, diagnosis and
Diseases of Liver with special attention to the infectivity of the
patients and mode of its further spreads and control specific reference to universal precautions.
Diseases of Kidneys, special attention to patient on dialysis.
- Oral aspects of puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and
Special considerations for patients suffering from systemic
disorders, like blood disorders requiring blood examination prior to oral surgery.
- Bleeding disorders.
- Patients on anti-coagulant therapy, management.
Oral Malignancies, Diagnosis and management.
- Patients on Radio therapy
- Patients on Chemo-therapy
Oral Medicine by W.R. Tyldesley
Burket’s oral Medicine by Malcolm A. Lynch.
Oral Medicne and Pathology by Cawson and Odel
Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders
Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis
Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors
Components: Outline of support, retention, bracing and reciprocation, connectors.
Construction of wax pattern and casting procedures
Maxilo mandibular relations: Use of face bow, articulation techniques including split cast techniques
Insertion and post insertion counseling and follow up
a. MacCraken’s Removable partial dentures b. Boucher’s treatment of partially edentulous patients by Gavin
c. Miller’s Removable partial dentures, d. Designing Removable partial dentures by John Osborn. e. Atlas of Removable partial dentures by Davenport.
ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SURGERY
i) Introduction, History and Diagnosis and treatment planning ii) Sterilization, instruments and armamentarium
iii) Incisions, Flap design and tissue handling
iv) Haemostasis, debridement and suturing. v) Post Operative care and nutrition, Prevention of infection,
i) Introduction, types and Pharmacology.
iii) Principles and application of forceps extraction
iv) Principles and application of elevators
v) Surgical removal of erupted/broken down roots teeth
Prevention And Management of Medical Emergencies
Introduction to Dental Ethics and Law, Forensic Dentistry
General Anaesthesia and Sedation in Dentistry
Impacted Wisdom tooth Surgery
d) Complications of impacted wisdom tooth Surgery and
Examination, Diagnosis, and Treatment Planning
- Examination and Diagnosis - Caries - Erosion, Attrition, Abrasion, cracked tooth, others - Treatment sequencing, placement and repair/replacement - Selection of restorative materials - Restorative failure - Postoperative problems
Principles of cavity design & preparation
- Basic principles, instrumentation and nomenclature - Introduction to lasers - Preparations - Dental amalgam - Tooth colored restorative materials
Sterilization and cross infection control
- Instruments and equipment - Control of the operating field - Soft tissue management - Esthetic considerations
FINAL PROFESSIONAL BDS
Complete Dentures. a) Definitions. b) Applied Anatomy and Physiology c) Peripheral tissue attachment of denture bearing area. d) Tongue form e) Saliva f) Systemic disorders and applied pathology. g) Evaluation of patients. h) Identification of patients i) General conditions. j) Muscle tone and muscular development. k) Osmotic balances l) Oral lesions with skin manifestations m) Psychiatric evaluation of patients n) Oral condition of denture bearing area o) Ridge form and relations. p) Oral mucosa: resistant and non resistant tissues q) Alveolar bone resorption. r) Face forms s) Fundamentals of Denture retention and contributing factors t) Mouth preparation including preprosthetics Surgery
a) Objectives of impression. a) Theories and techniques b) Impression techniques: minimum pressure, definite pressure,
c) Pascal’s law and its corollaries, atmospheric pressure,
intermolecular attraction, interfacial, surface tension
d) Impression Techniques: primary, wash and secondary
impressions, impression trays, impression materials.
e) Factors responsible for physical retention, physiological,
mechanical, surgical and psychological factors.
f) Stability g) Maxillo-mandibular relations. h) Occlusal and Rest vertical relations. i) Horizontal relations. j) Centric and Eccentrio relations. k) Articulators. l) Theories of articulation. m) Protrusive records condylar path. n) Lateral records.
o) Hanau’s formula. p) Facebow, arbitrary and kinematics. q) Hinge axis. r) Semi adjustable and acron type articulators. s) Selection of teeth, arrangement of teeth Factors responsible for
size, shape, colour, shade, position and relationship of teeth. ?? Curve of Spee.
t) Occulusion and articulation, u) Phonetics v) Trial w) Insertion x) Post-insertion follow up.
Immediate Dentures and Replacement Dentures
a) Classification and types (partial, complete). b) Indications and contra indications c) Objectives d) Clinical and laboratory procedures e) Multi disciplinary approach including care during surgery f) Insertion, follow up and maintenance.
a) Endosseous b) Sub periosteal c) Endodontic implants.
Osseo integration and Bio compatibility.
Maxillo Facial Prosthodontics.
Classification of congenital and acquired defects.
Principles governing treatment and management of patients presenting with various defects
Occlusion including TMD/MPD
Concept, Aetiology, Treatment planning and options
Principles and procedures relating to the management of medically compromised patients and the elderly
Medical conditions having oral manifestation
Principles of prosthodontic procedures in geriatric patients
Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders
Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis
Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors
Localization and trial of bridge frame work
Post insertion follow up, complication and management
h) Material considerations and cementation
i) Resin – Bonded Bridge
Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders
Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis
Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors
Classifications and types i. Partial and complete ii. Removable and Fixed iii. Transitional or Diagnostics and permanent definitive. iv. Tooth supported, root supported, implant supported
Indications contra indications, advantages and disadvantages
Precision Retained Dentures
Intra Coronal, Extra Coronal and Intra radicular attachments.
Relining, Rebasing and Repairs
Management strategies for the dental care of the elderly.
Dental and oral diseases and disorder in the elderly.
Range of psychological and social factors involved with geriatric patients.
Distinguish between normal and abnormal consequences of aging.
Recession of the gingival tissues and the special difficulties of providing removable prostheses.
a. Planning and making crowns and bridges by B. G. Smith. b. Contemporary fixed prosthodontics by Rossential and
c. Fundamentals of crown and bridge by Shillenberg. d. Tillman’s Principles of crown and bridge. e. Atlas of Tooth preparation for crown and bridge by
a. Boucher,s Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous Patients by
b. Atlas of complete dentures by John Hobkirr c. Syllabus of complete dentures by Heartwell and Rahn. d. Immediate and Replacement dentures by Anderson and
e. Fenn’s Clinical dental Prosthodontics by MacCraken. f. Complete Dentures Prosthodontics by Basker and Devenpot.
a. Atlas of implantology by Norman Kranin. b. Dental laboratory techniques by Morrow, Rudd and
c. Occlusion by Ramfjord and Ash. d. Management of Temporomandibular Disorders by Okeson.
B: OPERATIVE DENTISTRY
1. Radiology & Radiography
Restoration of Pulpless teeth ( Post and Core)
Restorative / Gingival Interface Management of medically compromised patients with special reference to
Implant supported restorations Occlusion
Paedodontics 1. Child management in dental practice
b) Oral prophylaxis c) Fluoride administration d) Dietary management e) Diet counseling f) Home care
3. The Acid etch Technique in caries prevention
4. Pit & Fissure Sealants & Preventive resin restorations
4. Radiology 5. Problem of Pain & Sedation 6. Periodontal disease in children
7. Injury to the primary & permanent teeth
8. Pulp therapy for the primary & young permanent teeth
9. Restorative dentistry for the primary dentition 10.
Space maintenance in the primary dentition
Treatment planning & interceptive orthodontics
1. Diagnostic Procedures.
2. Clinical Classification of pulpal & periapical disease
Internal Morphology & Access opening
Pulpectomy – diagnostic & working length, cleaning filing, shaping
Irrigants & intra canal medicaments .
1. Terminology, Indications & Contra indications
2. Diagnosis & Treatment Planning
3. Basic Principles of preparation
4. Procelain Jacket Crowns ? Indications & Contraindications, Clinical
7. Fluid control & soft tissue management 8. Electrosurgery Indications, Contra indication & Technique 9. Post & Core crowns 10. Impressions & Impression materials 11. Clinical Procedures 12. Laboratory Technique for 13. Porcelain veneers 14. Inlays Onlays. 15. CAD-CAM 16. Occlusion
The Art & Science of Operative Dentistry by Sturdurant. Pickardards Manual of Operative Dentistry by EAM Kidd. Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry by Schwartz Harty’s Endodontic in Clinical Practice by T.R. Pittford. Pathway of the Pulp by Cohen. Paediatric Dentistry Infancy through Adolesurse by Pinkham. Essentials of Dental Radiography & Radiology by Frickwhaites. Planning & making crowns and bridges by B.G.Smith. Tillman’s principles of crowns and bridges. Atlas of tooth preparation for crowns and bridges by Shillen berg.
ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
Diseases, Oro-antral fistula, foreign body.
Specific and non-specific, spread, principles of management
Cyst of Soft and hard tissues of Oro-facial region and their management
Benign and malignant tumors of oral cavity, jaws and associated tissue: odontogenic tumors, squamous cell carcinomas, Lymphoma etc.
Protocol of investigation including biopsy, X.Ray’s, CT Scan, MRI, Bone Scan.
Principles of different treatment modalities including: Surgery, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy Cryotherapy, lasers.
Diseases of salivary glands including tumors, sialadenitis, sialithiases, means of investigation, management.
Surgical anatomy, diseases and disorders including ankylosis.
Giant Cell Lesions
Introduction and management of cleft lip and palate.
Surgical anatomy, first aid, treatment, soft tissue injuries of head and neck, dento-alveolar injuries, fractures of mandible, fractures of mid-face, fractures of zygomatic complex, Naso-ethmoid fractures, orbital involvement, head injuries, blood and fluid replacement.
Introduction, evaluation and principles of treatment of facial disharmony including excess and deficiency of mandible and maxilla and craniofacial anomolies
Management of medically compromised patients.
Outpatient and in-patient management. Especially emphasis on cardio-vascular, respiratory disorders, immuno-compromised, blood dyscrasias etc.
Introduction, indications, contra-indications, types, surgical techniques, after care.
An outline of Oral Surgery Part-I and II by Killey, Seward and Kay.
Killey’s Fractures of Middle third of the facial skeleton
Medical problems in Dentistry by Scully & Cawson
Contemprary Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery by Patterson, Ellis & Tucker.
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by LASKIN
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by Kruger.
Local Anaesthesia in Dentistry G.L. Howe, Whitehead
11. General Anaesthesia & Sedation in Dentistry by Hill, Morris
13. Burket’s oral Medicine by Malcolm A. Lynch.
14. Oral Medicine and Pathology by Cawson and Odel
15. Oral & Maxillo Surgery by John Peddler
16. Oral & Maxillo Surgery by Archer.
a. Definitions and Terminologies b. Types
ii) Preventive iii) Interceptive iv) Corrective
a. Aims and needs for Orthodontic Treatment
Growth and Development
a. Basic concepts and definitions b. Variables affecting growth c. Prenatal and postnatal craniofacial growth b. Methods of studying growth c. Theories of growth d. Clinical application of growth and development in orthodontics e. TMJ Development
a. Normal Occlusion b. Andrews Six Keys of Occlusion
Diagnostic Aids in Orthodontics
ii) Extraoral examination iii) Intraoral examination’
iv) Periapical Xrays v) Orthopantomogram vi) Occlusal Xrays vii) Cephalometric Xray
(1) Identifying relevant anatomical structures and landmarks (2) Tracing (3) Analyses
ix) Bolton Analysis x) Mixed Dentition analysis
a. Roentgen Anatomy of teeth, jaws and T.M.Joints b. Variations within normal limits, and abnormalities c. Different types of X-Rays machines d. Varieties of X-Ray Films: Extra Oral, Intra oral, Bite wing and
e. Film taking and exposure procedures f. Film development techniques g. Indications and uses of dental radiology h. Interpretation of films i. Radiation Hazards
Development of dentition and occlusion
a. Prenatal development of dentition c. Features of Primary dentition d. Mixed dentition period e. Permanent dentition period a. Dimensional changes in dental arch b. Variations in development including size, form, number and position
Etiology of Malocclusion
a. Local factors b. Heredity c. Environmental Factors
Preventive and Interceptive Orthodontics
a. Diagnosis and Management of Habits b. Space supervision c. Space maintainers d. Space regainers e. Serial Extractions
a. Normal Structure of Periodontal Ligament and Bone b. The role of bone in eruption and stabilization c. Effects of Orthodontic force d. Factors affecting tooth movement
a. Concepts, Types and Control of Anchorage b. Types of Wires and Alloys used in orthodontics c. Ideal properties of Orthodontic wires and comparison of different
Retention and relapse
a. Concepts of retention and relapse b. Occlusal Stability and factors related to retention c. Strategies of management.
i) Types ii) Indications iii) Construction
b. Introduction to various extraoral appliances for tooth movement c. Expansion appliances
a. Introduction and background of different systems b. Indications and drawbacks c. Components and its accessories d. Edgewise and Straight Wire systems e. Bonding and Banding materials
a. Non-skeletal problems including Class I malocclusion, crowding,
d. Class III e. Extractions in Orthodontics f. Adjunctive treatment goals and principles
Cleft Lip and Palate
Practical and Clinical Orthodontics
a. Adams clasp b. Labial Bow c. Canine retractor d. Cantilever and Z spring e. Arch wire fabrication+
A comprehensive orthodontic case presentation of a non-skelatal malocclusion.
?? Contemporary Orthodontics
?? Introduction to Orthodontics
, Luar Mittehels
?? Hand Book of Orthodontics
Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2007 Teil I Nr. 32, ausgegeben zu Bonn am 23. Juli 2007zur Änderung der Arzneimittelverschreibungsverordnung*)– das Bundesministerium für Gesundheit auf GrundVon der Verschreibungspflicht nach § 48 Abs. 1des § 48 Abs. 2 Nr. 1, 2 Buchstabe a, Nr. 3 und Abs. 3Satz 1 Nr. 2 des Arzneimittelgesetzes sind Arznei-Satz 1 des Arzneimittelgesetzes in der Fassung der
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