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Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women during ante-natal clinic visits in parts of idah and igalamela/odolu local government areas

Journal of Applied Science and the Environment ISSN 2141-1360 2010 School of Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria. MALARIA PARASITAEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN DURING ANTE-NATAL
CLINIC VISITS IN PARTS OF IDAH AND IGALAMELA/ODOLU LOCAL
GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA
* O. YAHAYA, O. E MIACHI, I. O. UMAR AND E. UWAOKHONYE
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State. ABSTRACT
The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia/anaemia in pregnancy, were determined during two
malaria transmission seasons in rural Idah and Igalamela-Odolu Local Government Areas of Kogi
State. In each survey, questionnaires were administered on previous parity history, gestational age
and malaria parasitaemia were determined. A total of 797 pregnant women were enrolled in five
(5) major clinics attended by pregnant women. A total of 384 (48.2%) that had microscopic
parasitaemia were interviewed using questionnaires. There were more positive cases among
primigravidae, and the results showed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the primigravidae
and multigravidae, but show no significant difference (P>0.05) between the trimesters. More
women were infected between the age ranges of 16– 25.
Keywords: Malaria, Pregnant, Parasitamia, Gravidae, Gestation age.

INTRODUCTION
regardless of their parity. In a study by Malaria is a parasitic infection that can have serious impact on pregnant women in Uganda, it was discovered that 55% of the sub-saharan African and other tropical areas. households are bed net users with the strongest Thirty million out of 45 million women in Africa become pregnant in malarial endemic permanent house and agreeing that bed net are areas each year (Feiko et al., 1999). Malarial infection during pregnancy is a The prevention of HIV disease progression major public health problem in tropical and and vertical transmission, improved nutritional sub-tropical regions throughout the world. status and better management of malaria and Africa bears 90% of the global malarial burden intestinal parasitic infections are likely to (RBM 2005). Plasmodium falciparum reduce the incidence of low birth weight infection during pregnancy increases the (Dreyfuss et al., 2001). In area with moderate chances of maternal anaemia, abortion, still malaria transmission, women of all parities have substantially increased risk of low birth retardation and infant low birth weight. Salihu et al., (2003) reported that the malarial infection in pregnancy. The risk of effectiveness of chloroquine prophylaxis in low birth weight is likely to be particularly reducing the frequency of malaria-induced high in area with a high prevalence of severe anemia (Shulman et al., 2001). Increased reports that P. falciparum has resistance to gravidity and subsequent infections with chloroquine. On the Africa continent, malaria multiple strains will effectively boost immune chemo-suppression with the drug was found mechanism against more and more strains. The beneficial in reducing the risk of anaemia at multiplicity of infections in pregnant women may be an important factor for the acquisition (Bouyansong, 2001; Bonnet et al., 2002). and maintenance of immunity against malarial Falciparum malarial affect more pregnant (Beck et al., 2001). Maternal pyrimethamine women especially primigravidae (Saute et al., prophylaxis did not appear to protect babies 2002), but clear parity pattern of malaria and anaemia was not observed, however a more demonstrable beneficial effect on the babies cost effective malarial control approach in this birth weight (Olowu et al., 2001). Antibodies area should be aimed at all pregnant women produced in pregnancy in response to placental J. Appl. Sci. Environ., 2(1): 104-107, 2010 their first and second trimesters were more antibodies in multigravidea and the delayed infected than those in their third trimesters production of antibodies in primigravidae (Table 4). However, more women 109 (13%) in their primigravidea had malaria while differential susceptibilities of pregnant women in placental malarial (O’neil et al., 2001). The aim of this work was to study the prevalence and the distribution of malaria parasitemia This hospital based studies, showed a high prevalence of malaria infection, 384 (48.1%), over two-malaria seasons in 2005/2006. Both MATERIALS AND METHODS
frequent during the rainy seasons. Similar The prevalence and possible risk factors results were obtained by Van-Eijk et al., for malarial were investigated in 797 pregnant (2001), who confirmed that first trimesters is women attending the antenatal clinics in five the main risk period (Table I), although it was (5) health centers in Idah and Igalamela-Odolu reported that age did not show any relationship with the spread of malaria (P>0.005) (Pearson, Nigeria, in two malaria seasons (2005-2006). The health centers were General hospital, women between the ages of 16-30 were most Idah; General hospital, Ajaka; Adijat clinic and maternity homes, Idah; Ojochogwu clinic, Age distribution of malaria patients and Idah; and The Federal Polytechnic Medical their economic class revealed that those Health center, Idah.Blood samples were taken for malaria parasitaemia and anaemia. The economic class were more susceptible to the infection (Table 3). The statistics showed no their various trimesters, age, number of significant relationship between economic pregnancy and their economic class. Thick and class and malaria. The higher prevalence of thin blood films were prepared from capillary malaria among primigravidae in their first blood stained with Giemsa stain and observed trimesters could be attributed to inexperience under low power objective. Parasite densities in the area of antenatal care, exposure to were determined by counting the number of mosquito bite, non usage of insecticides parasites from the various fields and slides treated net etc. Increased gravidity and were double checked blindly. All samples subsequent infections with multiple strains, will improve immune mechanism against more and more strains. This agrees with the findings of Beck et al (2001) in Ghana as reasons why RESULTS AND DICUSSION
were confirmed positive for malaria parasites. pregnancy increase the chances of maternal Out of these numbers, 152 (19%) were in their anaemia, abortion, still birth, prematurity, first trimesters, 160 (20%) were in their intrauterine growth retardation and infant low second trimesters, while 72 (9%) were in their birth weight, which is the greatest single risk third trimesters (Table 1). Table 2 shows the factor for death in first month of life (Das, distribution of pregnant women among the 2000). Malaria has been estimated to cause 8- different age, revealed that there were more 14% of all low birth weight babies and 3-8% cases between the ages of 16-30. However, no of all infant deaths in areas of Africa with relationship was established between malaria stable malaria transmission (RBM, 2005). and age of pregnant mothers (p>0.05). In terms of its effect on mothers, severe mortality, and malarial anaemia is estimated to (P>0.005) among the various economic class cause as many as 10000 maternal deaths each and age distribution but showed that there year in Africa. Providing rapid diagnosis and were more cases of malaria between the ages important component of effective control and there are antimalarial drugs which are safe and effective for use in pregnancy (Bounyasong, J. Appl. Sci. Environ., 2(1): 104-107, 2010 2001). However, there remain obstacles to Nuwaha, F. (2001) Factors influencing the use reaching women who will benefit the most Uganda. Am. J. Trop. Med.Hyg. 65(6) from them, particularly high-risk adolescent in O’Neil S.T, Achur, R. N. Agbo, Enoh, S. prevention to pregnant women will require increased awareness of the problem among communities most affected with malaria, and C. (2001) Gravidity dependent production integration of malaria control tools with other of antibodies that inhibits binding of P. women and new borns. The use of insecticide pregnancy. Infect. Immune. 69 (12): 7487- irrespective of age or parity, Education and Olowu J. A., Sowunmi A. and Abohweyere A. training programmes in malaria prevention and early detection of malaria and treatment, better hyperendemic area: a revisit. A.J.Med. Sci. health care delivery systems and enlightment on the malaria transmission will also be very Pearson R.D. (2001). Prolactin, pregnancy and aneamia in severe malaria, Trends of REFERENCES
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