12.1 Introduction
In the previous lesson we have told you about the first declension. We explained that words
ending in -h are grouped under the first declension. In this lesson we will show words
ending in -a. They are also grouped under the first declension. In the plural their endings are
exactly like those ending in -h. In the singular the endings differ.
Also we show you words of the first declension ending in -h" and -a". These words also
differ in their endings in the singular. Take a look at the following examples.
In these examples you see at first all forms (singular and plural) of the word hJmevra. This
word is feminine and means ‘day.’ It is used often to denote time, usually in combination
with a preposition. After that we show all the forms of the words profhvth" (prophet) and
neaniva" (young man).
N.B. We like to point out again that we assume that knowledge taught in previous lessons is
known by you. This means that in the examples forms already explained will not be dealt
with again.
12.2 Examples from the New Testament with words of the first declension ending in -a,
-h" and -a"
kaiV hJmevra h^n para-
a demonstrative pronoun takes on gender, number & case of the word it belongs to), hJmevra"- 2nd c. sing., oujdeV- nor (see 12.4), w@ran- 4th c. sing. < w@ra (f.)- hour tistou'- 2nd c. sing. < baptisthv" (m.)- baptist, a!rti- (adverb) now often with the meaning of ‘to happen’; this form is for later) hJmevrai"- 3rd c. pl., ejkeivnai"- 3rd c. pl. f. < ejkei'no"- that (one), ejxh'lqen- 3rd p. sing. aorist < ejxevrcomai- I go out (this form will be discussed later), dovgma (neut.)- decree givnetai- 3rd p. sing. s. pres. t.< givnomai- I am, I become denotes the O. T. and also all Scriptures that were written 3rd case here denotes 'a means with which', so-called instrumentalis: 'with the name, named'), Eu!tuco"- lit. good luck (eu^- good, tuchv- lot; in negative and positive sense) pouv"- foot (this is a word of the 3rd declension. This declension explained later), neanivou- 2nd c. sing. ou%to"- this, ajpavgage- 2nd p. sing. imperative aorist < ajpavgw- I lead away (this form does not occur in the New Testament neaniva"- 4th c. pl., this form does not occur in the New Testament (Notice this form is the same as the 1st c. sing!)
12.3 Overview of the inflexion of nouns of the first declension ending in -a, -h" and -a"
(N.B. Learn to recognise these forms as well as possible by reading the examples given in the
sentences over and over again. If you have the time, the energy and the motivation learn the
following columns by heart).
hJmevra hJmevrai

You can notice that in the word hJmevra the -a is preceded by a -r. The endings such as you
see in the column of hJmevra, are only used in words that have an -e, i, or r as ending. Other
words ending in -a end in -h" and -h/ in the 2nd and 3rd c. sing./. An example of this is given
in the homework. In repetition lesson 14 we repeat all rows again with the rules that go with
Take a good look at this:
-h" usually 2nd c. (of words ending in -h and in -a without preceding e, i, r), but sometimes
1st c. (of words ending in -h")
-a" 2nd c. sing. and 4th c. pl. (of words ending in -a)/ 1st c. sing. and 4th c. pl. (of words
ending in -a")
The plural is always -ai, -wn, -ai", -a"!

12.4 The fifth case of words of the first declension ending in
-a, -h" en -a"
The fifth case singular of words ending in -a is equal to the first case singular.
The fifth case singular of words ending in -h" and -a" ends in an -a.
Example: neaniva" > 5th c. sing. neaniva
The fifth case plural is in all cases equal to the first case plural.
12.5 Double negations
When more than one negation occur in a sentence the following rules apply:
- if the 2nd negation is a combination (ouj+ .), then the negations corroborate each other
- if the 2nd negation is not a combination, then the negations annul each other

12.6 The verb
The verb oi!da does not exist in the simple present tense. The form oi!da is actually a perfect
tense. But oi!da is translated as 'I know'. The conjugation of oi!da is irregular. So you
should learn these columns well!
When a n is given between parentheses, this means that forms with and without the end -n occur; respectively before vowels and consonants. N.B. In classical Greek the plural forms are as follows:
In the New Testament the forms i!ste and i!sasi(n) are used a few times (i!ste twice,
i!sasi(n) once). The form i!smen does not occur in the New Testament.
12.7 Homework
a) Give all cases singular of jIwavnnh" oJ baptisthv"
b) Inflect oijkiva (home) completely (that is, give all cases singular and plural)
c) Translate the following sentences.
1. dovxa ejn uJyivstoi" qew'/ kaiV ejpiV gh'" eijrhvnh ejn ajnqrwvpoi" eujdokiva".
3. oujdeV SolomwVn ejn pavsh/ th'/ dovxh/ aujtou' . 4. soiV dwvsw thVn ejxousivan tauvthn a@pasan kaiV thVn dovxan aujtw'n. 5. ouj speivrousin oujdeV qerivzousin oujdeV sunavgousin eij" ajpoqhvka". 6. oi^den gaVr oJ pathVr uJmw'n oJ oujravnio" o@ti crh/vzete touvtwn aJpavntwn. 7. kaiV lavmpei pa'sin toi'" ejn th/' oijkiva/. 8. kaiV ejkei'no" oi^den o@ti ajlhqh' levgei. 9. ejn tauvtai" deV tai'" hJmevrai" kath'lqon ajpoV JjIerosoluvmwn profh'tai eij" jAntiovceian. 10. ajmhVn levgw uJmi'n, oujk oi^da uJma'". dovxa- glory, honor, magnificence, ejn uJyivstoi" - in the highest (heavens), ejpiv- (+ 2nd c.) on, eijrhvnh (f.)- peace, eujdokiva (f.)- goodwill, desire, Solomwvn- Solomon, dwvsw- 1st p. sing. simple future tense < divdwmi- I give, tauvthn- 4th c. sing. f. < ou%to"- that, a@pasan-< pa'" plus a-intensivans ('a that strengthens the meaning'), speivrw- I sow, qerivzw- I reap, I harvest, ajpoqhvkh (f.)- granary, storehouse, oujravnio"- (adjective) heavenly, celestial, crhv/zw-
I need, lavmpw- I shine, ejkei'no"- (used as a noun) he, ajlhqh'- true things, the truth,
kath'lqon- 3rd p. pl. aor. < katevrcomai- I descend, I journey from a higher place to a lower
place (the aorist will be explained later; you can translate with a simple past tense),
JIerosoluvmwn- 2nd c. < JjIerosovluma- Jerusalem, jAntiovceia- Antioch>
12.8 New words
hJmevra (f.)
- Scripture (in the plural often to denote the O.T. or all books and letters known at the time) - Moses (2nd c. Mwu>sevw", 4th c. Mwu>seva) - I descend, I journey from a higher to a lower place
12.9 The background of the New Testament: The Roman Religion
The Roman religion is very similar to the one of the Greeks. Also they knew several gods and
goddesses. For each god or goddess a Greek equivalent can be pointed out. The supreme
deity of the Romans was Jupiter (the Greek Zeus). The messenger of the gods, Hermes, with
the Romans was called Mercurius and the goddess Artemis was called Diana. Each god or
goddess had his or her area of sway. So Mercurius was the patron of merchants and travelers.
He usually was depicted with a staff in his hand and winged sandals on his feet. The goddess
Diana held sway over hunting. She was depicted with bow and arrow.
When an important military campaign was organized, priests observed the flight of birds to
determine whether or not the signs were auspicious. Also sacrifices were offered, particularly
to the god of war–Mars. After a successful battle processions marched alongside temples to
express gratitude to the gods. Often the gods of conquered nations were assigned temples at
Rome. The idea behind it was that the gods had been taken from those nations and had
become property of the Romans.
Besides the gods the Romans also venerated abstract concepts as divine. They honored the
city of Rome as the goddess Roma. Also there were altars for virtues such as justice (Justitia).
Even certain locations–for instance fountains in the forest–were considered sacred.
Every Roman had an area at home where he venerated statuettes of gods and goddesses.
These were called penates and were considered to be the patrons of the home and the family.
After the introduction of the cult of Caesar the Romans added to the penates the genius
(guardian spirit) of the emperor. Often before the meal people would throw a few crumbs of
bread into the fire as food for the household gods, or they would sprinkle some drops of wine
at the feet of the statuettes.




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