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Forum abstract

“Il futuro è aperto biologicamente e spiritualmente”
“The future is biologically and spiritually open”
Karl Popper, Konrad Lorenz
“L’insegnamento della medicina.
Il programma universitarioper il medico del futuro: l’omeopata”“Teaching Medicine.
The University programmefor the future medical doctor: the homeopath” Sorrento Palace Hotel – February 24-27 -2000Sorrento, Italy Ordine dei Medici della Provincia di Napoli L.U.I.M.O.
Libera Università Internazionale
di Medicina Omeopatica “Samuel Hahnemann”
Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici Seconda Università degli Studi di NapoliCattedra R di Medicina Legale e delle Assicurazioni Red de UniversidadesRegionales Latinoamericanas Prof. Franz M. WuketitsUniversity of Wien (Austria) Ing. Gabriel Galarza LopezChancelor, “Bolivar” University, Ecuador Prof. Goffredo SciaudoneS.U.N., Second University of Naples (Italy) Dr. Ton NicolaiSecretary, European Committee for Homoeopathy Comitato d'Onore - Honour CommitteeProf. Vincenzo Caianiello,Presidente Emerito della Corte Costituzionale On. Salvatore Cardinale,Ministro delle Telecomunicazioni S.E. Mons. Felice Cece,Arcivescovo di Sorrento-Castellammare di Stabia S.E. Mons. Giuseppe CostanzoArcivescovo di Siracusa Presidente Intergruppo Medicine Complementari,Parlamento Europeo On. Gianfranco Dell'AlbaParlamento Europeo Sen. Francesco CarellaPresidente Commissione PermanenteIgiene e Sanità del Senato della Repubblica Italiana Sen. Maria Grazia Daniele GaldiCommissione Permanente Igiene e Sanità del Senato della Repubblica Italiana Sen. Giuseppe Lo CurzioSegretario Generale Bicamerale della Commissione per l'Infanzia Sen. Alberto MonticoneMembro VII Commissione del Senato IstruzionePubblica, Beni Culturali, Ricerca Scientifica, Spettacolo e Sport Dott. Nino DanieleVice-Presidente della Regione Campania Dott.ssa Rosanna GiordanoDirigente Regione Campania, Settore Farmaceutico Prof. Antonio GrellaRettore della Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli Prof. Francesco RossiPreside della Facoltà di Medicina della S.U.N.
Dott. Luigi GaySostituto Procuratore D.D.A. della Procura presso ilTribunale di Napoli Dott. Pietro FedericoVice-Presidente della L.M.H.I. per l'Italia Dott.ssa Giuseppina BovinaMembro della Commissione del Ministero dellaSanità Italiano per il Medicinale Omeopatico e della Commissione per lo Studio delle Medicine non Convenzionalia THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN MEDICINE IN THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE:BETWEEN OBJECTIVITY AND SUBJECTIVITY TECHNOLOGICAL MEDICINE AND SOCIETY: INDIRECT INFLUENCES OR IMPOSITION? CONSEQUENCES OF TECHNOLOGICAL MEDICINE ON SOCIETY: COMPARISON AMONG SOCIAL CONTEXTSWITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT THE UNIVERSITY IN UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS: AN EXAMPLE OF CULTURAL INTEGRATION BETWEEN TECHNOLOGY AND TRADITION.
THE EXPERIENCE OF REGIONAL UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH AMERICA: TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION, HUMAN REALITY HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE AND THE SCIENTIFIC THEORIES AT THE TIME OF ITS BIRTH TEACHING HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE ALL OVER THE WORLD MAIN INFLUENCES OF MODERN SCIENCE ON HOMEOPATHY: A SHORT REVIEW Dr. Ermenegildo Caccese, Dr. Giovanna Silvestri MAN, SCIENCE, MEDICINE: MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL CRISIS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON THE AREA OF HEALTH SCIENCES UNDERSTANDING HOMEOPATHIC METHODOLOGY FROM SYSTEM THINKING Dr. Andrea Signorini, Dr. Giuseppe Andrioli, Dr.Paolo Bellavite HOMEOPATHIC MEDICAL SCIENCE: THE THIRD MILLENNIUM’S EPISTEMOLOGIC CHALLENGE HOMEOPATHY, ARISTOTLE AND THE FUTURE SCIENCE RELATION BETWEEN NATURAL LANGUAGE AND TECHNICAL LANGUAGE IN SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES INFINETLY BIG AND INFINETLY SMALL: TWO FRONTIERS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH TODAY THERMODYNAMICS OF EXTREMELY DILUTED SOLUTIONS OF THE HOMEOPATHIC PHARMACOPOEIA Prof. Vittorio Elia, Dr. Marcella Niccoli BIOPHYSICS OF HOMEOPATHIC DRUGS: THE PARTICULAR CASE OF NOSODES AIDS – THE WAY TOWARDS A NEW FORM OF SCIENCE? SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE OF THE INFLUENCE OF HOMEOPATHIC PREPARATIONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF WATER THE STATUS OF OMEOPATHIC MEDICINE IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIESA CASE OF EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES OF MEDICINE: INDIA TEACHING HOMEOPATHY IN MEDICAL COLLEGES IN INDIA THE ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION OF HOMEOPATHY AT THE HIGH TABLE OF EVOLUTION Dr. Carlo Melodia, MD – Dr. Emilio Scalzone, MD TOXICOLOGY: CONSIDERATIONS ON TOXIC EFFECT OF COFFEE (COFFEA CRUDA) AND TOBACCO (TABACUM) ABUSE PHARMACOLOGICAL CLINICAL TESTING: STATISTIC IN EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS THE EXPERIMENT BETWEEN EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE AND NON-DOGMATIC SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:EXPERIENCE OF A CONFRONTATION BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND PHYSICAL BASIS OF HOMEOPATHIC POTENCIES THE PERSPECTIVE OF INVESTIGATION OF PHARMACODYNAMIC ACTION OF THE HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES DIAGNOSIS: OVER AND UNDERESTIMATION OF THE AVAILABLE TOOLS. IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE AND MEDICAL EDUCATION63Prof. Antonio Abbadessa THE PROBLEM OF DIAGNOSIS IN MEDICINE, SIGNIFICANCE IN HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE Dr. Nicola Maglione, MD – Dr. Claudio Pastena, MD PATHOGENETIC TRIALS – CLINICAL CONFIRMATION PATHOGENESIS AS A FORMATION AND SELF-KNOWLEDGE PROCESS OF THE HOMEOPATHIC PHYSICIAN THE HOMEOPATHIC CLINICAL HISTORY IN THE HOMEOPATHIC EPISTEMOLOGIC FRAME HOMEOPATHIC DIAGNOSIS: A METHODOLOGY FOR PRESCRIBING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SIMILIA LAW THE BIOPATHOGRAPHIC PROTOCOL: PORTRAIT OF THE UNITY OF THE ILL PERSON AND TOOL FOR CLINICAL CASE TAKING Dr.Fiorenza Baldi, MD – Dr. Nicola Villano, MD A TEACHING CASE. THE PEDIATRIC IDIOPATIC PURPURA METHODOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HOMEOPATHIC AND CONVENTIONAL CLINICS: A REVIEW FROM 2715 CASES Dr. Andrea Aversa, MD – Dr. Silvia Mascoli, MD – Dr. Ermatea Trabucco FROM CONVENTIONAL TO HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE: THE DIFFICULTIES FOR A DOCTOR IN UNITING THEM BOTH.
COMPARED CLINICAL MEDICINE BETWEEN HOMEOPATHY AND ALLOPATHY:EXAMPLES OF TREATMENTS IN CHRONICAL AND ACUTES CASE Dr. Giuseppe Fagone, MD – Dr. Roberto Petrucci, MD – Dr. Antonella Ronchi, MD COMPLEMENTARY VALUE OF PSYCHONEUROENOCRINOIMMUNOLOGY (PNEI)AS THE NOSOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF THE HOMEOPATHIC REPERTORIZATION THE HOMEOPATHIC METHOD OF MANAGEMENT OF STERILITY. A PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY Hadjicostas C., Polychronopoulou Z., Drossou P., Kyvelou P., Padjiaras K.,Labropoulou A., Polymenea G., Hadjigeorgiou K.,Kiriakopoulou E.,Diamantidis S.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT IN THE DAILY CIGARETTE CONSUMPTION BY HEAVY SMOKERS Polychronopoulou Z., Drossou P., Kyvelou P., Padjiaras K., Hadjicostas C.,Labropoulou A., Polymenea G., Hadjigeorgiou K., Kiriakopoulou E., Diamantidis S.
PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC AND HOMEOPATHIC TRAINING NEW TREATMENTS FOR HEALING LEPROSY, CANCER, DIABETES, VIRAL HEPATITIS e AND AIDS VETERINARIAN HOMEOPATHY TEACHING IN OFFICIAL CIRCLES: PILOT EXPERIENCES Dr. Pietro Venezia – SIVtro-VSF Italia - Dr. Marco Verdone – Associazione Raphael HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE AND PLACEBO EFFECT, FROM HOMEOPATHIC VETERINARIAN’S POINT OF VIEW EDUCATIONAL CURICULUM OF THE HOMEOPATH AND INFORMED CONSENT HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE, ORDER OF PHYSICIANS AND REGISTERS TOWARD THE MEDICINE OF THE FUTURE: PHARMACOGENOMICS OR HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE PHARMACOGENOMICS AND HOMEOPATIC MEDICINE: TWO SIMILAR STARTING POINTS WITH DIFFERENT OUTPUTS HOMEOPATHIC DOCTOR: SWITCH OR AUTONOMOUS EDUCATION? Dr. Ciro D’Arpa, MD – Dr.Giuseppina Bovina, MD – Dr.Armida Rebuffi CONTINUOS EDUCATION AND PERMANENT CLINICAL RESEARCH IN HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE Dr. Ciro D’Arpa, MD – Dr.Giuseppina Bovina, MD – Dr.Armida Rebuffi HEALTH SCIENCES: PROPOSAL FOR A NEW DIDACTIC APPROACH HOMEOPATHIC AND PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE: INTERACTION IN PROBABLE COMMON WAY Maria Rosaria Balzano, Francesco Balzano, Giuseppina Esposito, Domenico Casillo ore 14.00-21.00 Registrazione partecipantihrs 2-9 p.m. Participants registration ore 19.30 Cena informalehrs 7.30 p.m. Informal dinner 24 Thursday – I Session
Medicina e realtà sociale.
Medicine and social reality.
8.30 Registrazione partecipanti - Participants registration 10.30 Apertura dei lavori - Forum openingA. Rodriguez (L.U.I.M.IO.), G. Marotta (I.I.S.F.), G. Sciaudone (S.U.N.), G. G. Lopez (U.R.E.L.) 10.45
Sviluppo moderno della medicina nella prospettiva antropologica: tra oggettività e soggettività
The development of modern medicine in the anthropological perspective: between objectivity and
subjectivity
Prof. Dietrich von Engelhardt
Institute for History of Medicine and Science, University of Medicine, Lûbeck, Germany
11.30
Medicina tecnologica e società: influenza indiretta o imposizione.
Technological medicine and society: indirect influence or imposition.
Prof. Carlos Santa Maria
Department of Sociology of Development, Nariño University, Colombia
12.00
Effetti della medicina tecnologica sulla società: confronto tra realtà a differenti livelli di sviluppo.
Consequences of technological medicine on society: comparison among social contexts with different
levels of development.
Dr. Manuel Albán Lucio
International Relations, “Bolivar” University, Ecuador
14.00
L’università nelle regioni sottosviluppate; un esempio di integrazione della cultura tra tecnologia e tradizione. L’esperienza
universitaria regionale in America Latina: tecnologia, globalizzazione, realtà umana.
The University in underdeveloped areas: an example of cultural integration between
technology and tradition. The experience of regional Universities in South America:
technology, globalization, human reality.
Ing. Gabriel Galarza Lopez
Chancelor, “Bolivar” University, Ecuador
14.30
Il futuro è aperto
Future is open
Prof. Sabino Palumbieri
Philosophical Anthropology, Salesian Papal University
14.55L’altra faccia della medicina.
The other side of medicine.
Dr. Alma RodriguezM.D., L.U.I.M.O. President, Italy 15.25
Omeopatia e teorie scientifiche del suo tempo
Homeopathic Medicine and Scientific theories at the time of its birth
Prof. Antonino Drago
Dep.of Physical Sciences University of Naples
15.45
L’insegnamento della medicina omeopatica nel Mondo: una rassegna
Teaching Homeopathic Medicine around the world: a review.
Dr. Michel van Wassenhoven, M.D.
Unio Homeopathica Belgica, Belgium
16.35Interventi istituzionali. Indirizzi di SalutoInstitutional speeches. Indirizzi di Saluto 25 Friday – II Session
Scienza e conoscenza: la relazione tra l’uomo
e l’ambiente nell’esperienza scientifica.
Criteri epistemologici per una scienza della natura.
Science and knowledge: the relation between human being and environment in the
scientific experience. Epistemological principles for a science of nature.

Chairman:Prof. Franz M. WuketitsInstitute for Theory of Science, University of Wien, Austria 9.00
La Struttura della scienza.
The structure of science.
Prof. Erhard Oeser
Institute for Theory of Science and Scientific Research, University of Wien, Austria
9.30
La filosofia della biologia.
Philosophy of biology.
Prof. Franz M. Wuketits
Institute for Theory of Science, University of Wien, Austria
10.00
Organismo – omeostasi.
Organism - homeostasis.
Prof. Jean Gayon
Epistemology and History of Sciences of Life and Health, “D. Diderot” – Paris 7 University, France
10.30
Uomo ed ambiente.
Man and environment.
Dr. Maria Wuketits
Karl Popper Institute, University of Wien, Austria
11.15
Uomo, scienza, medicina: l’antropologia medica
Man, science, medicine: medical anthropology
Prof. Armando Savignano
University of Trieste, Italy
11.30
La crisi epistemologica e le sue consequenze nell’area delle scienze della salute: uno sguardo dall’America Latina.
The epistemological crisis and its consequences on the area of health Sciences. – A look from Latin
America
Prof. Maximo Chaparro
Social Sciences, National Technological University, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Looking at homeopathic medicine
11.50
La metodologia omeopatica nella prospettiva del pensiero sistemico.
Understanding Homoeopathic methodology from systems thinking
Dr. Fernand Debats
E.C.H. Education Subcommittee Co-ordinator, The Netherlands
12.10
La similitudine rivisitata
The revisited similia principle
Dr.Andrea Signorini, Dr. Giuseppe Andrioli, Dr. Paolo Bellavite
Scientific Committee of F.I.A.M.O. and Morphological Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Italy
12.30
La Scienza Medica Omeopatica: la sfida epistemologica del III Millennio
Homeopathic Medical Science: the Third Millenium’s epistemologic challenge
Dr. Carmelo Musco
Italian Society of Homeopathic Medicine
14.15 TAVOLA ROTONDA / ROUND TABLE
“L’uomo persona umana. Direzione dell’uomo e direzione della medicina”
“Man as human person. Man’s direction and direction of medicine ”
Prof. Antonio GiudittaDepartment of General Physiology and Environment, “Federico II University”, Naples, ItalyDr. Alma RodriguezDr. Manuel Alban,Prof. Franz Wuketits,Prof. Goffredo Sciaudone,Dr. P. S. Ortega III Session
Scienza e metodo.
Science and method
Chairman:Prof. Carlo PedoneDepartment of Chemistry, “Federico II” University of Naples, Italy 16.30
Il rapporto tra linguaggio naturale e linguaggio tecnico nelle discipline scientifiche.
Relation between natural language and technical language in scientific disciplines.
Prof. Massimo Baldini
Semiology, L.U.I.S.S. Faculty of Political Sciences, Italy
16.50
Infinitamente grande ed infinitamente piccolo: due frontiere della ricerca scientifica oggi.
Infinitely big and infinitely small: two frontiers of scientific research today.
Prof. Giancarlo Barbarino
Department of Physics and Nuclear Physics National Institute, Dep. of Naples, Italy 17.10
Nuove prospettive nello studio delle proprietà della materia: la mobile frontiera tra chimica e fisica.
New perspectives in the study of matter’s properties: moving border line between chemistry and
physics.
Dr. Francesco Petruccione
“Albert Ludwig” University, Freiburg, Germany
17.30
Termodinamica delle soluzioni estremamente diluite della farmacopea omeopatica
Thermodynamics of extremely diluted solutions of the homeopathic pharmacopoeia
Prof. Vittorio Elia
Department of Chemistry, “Federico II” University, Naples, Italy
17.35
Biofisica delle droghe omeopatiche: il caso particolare dei nosodi
Biophysics of Homeopathic drugs: the particular case of Nosodes
Dr. Joan Van Damme, Dr. Sc pharm., Belgium.
17.55
AIDS - verso una nuova forma di scienza?
AIDS - the way toward a new form of science?
Dr. Stefan Lanka, PhD,
Karl Karfeld, Ped., Germany
26 Saturday – IV Session
Medicina tradizionale e medicina omeopatica a confronto.
Official and homeopathic medicine in comparison.
Chairmen:Dr. Matheus Marim, Dr. Carlo Melodia, Dr. Alma Rodriguez, Prof. Goffredo Sciaudone.
8.30
Lo statuto della medicina Omeopatica in altri paesi. Un caso di equivalenza tra le due facce della medicina; l’India.
The status of Homeopathic Medicine in different countries. A case of equivalence between the two
sides of medicine: India.
Dr. Diwan Vijay Chand
L.M.H.I. Vice-President for India
Evoluzione biologica e medicina
Biological evolution and medicine
8.50
Il ruolo ed il contributo dell’omeopatia alla tavola alta dell’evoluzione
The role and contribution of Homeopathy at the high table of Evolution
Dr. Pierluigi Gargiulo
M.D. - Scientific director of the “L’altra medicina “ journal
9.10
Il punto di partenza
The starting point
Dr. Jeremy Swayne
M.D., Dean of the Faculty of Homeopathy, London, UK
Stato di salute e stato di malattia – la reversibilità dei processi morbosi.
Health and disease: reversibility in morbid processes.
9.30
La dinamica del cambiamento
Dynamics of the change
Dr. Domenico de Carlo
M.D. – L.U.I.M.O., Naples, Italy
9.50
Predisposizione morbosa, individuo, guarigione
Morbid inheritance, individual, healing
Dr. Carlo Melodia M.D.; Dr. Emilio Scalzone, M.D.
L.U.I.M.O., Naples, Italy
Tossicologia – Farmacologia: effetto primario / effetto secondario
Toxicology – Pharmacology: primary and secondary effect
10.25
Aspetti farmaco-tossicologici
Pharmacological-toxicological aspects
Prof. Antonello Crisci
Institute for Legal Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy
10.45
Effetto primario ed effetto secondario in Medicina Omeopatica
Primary and secondary effects in Homeopathic Medicine
Dr. Antonio Manzi , M.D.
L.U.I.M.O., Naples, Italy
11.05
Tossicologia: considerazioni sull’effetto tossico nei pazienti dell’abuso di caffè e di tabacco (coffea cruda, tabacum)
Toxicology: considerations on toxic effect of coffee (coffea cruda) and tobacco (tabacum) abuse
Dr.Maria Luisa Agneni, M.D.
L.U.I.M.O., Rome, Italy
11.40
Sperimentazione clinica farmacologica: l’uso della statistica nell’analisi sperimentale.
Pharmacological clinical testing: statistics in experimental analysis.
Prof. Ciro Gallo
Medical Statistics, Second University of Naples, Italy
12.00
L’esperimento conoscitivo tra la medicina evidente (EBM) e la ricerca scientifica non dogmatica: esperienza di un confronto
An experiment between Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and non-dogmatic scientific research:
experience of a confrontation.
Dr. Vincenzo Nuzzo, M.D., L.U.I.M.O., Naples, Italy
pediatrics
Diagnosi di malattia: nosografia medica, parametri biochimici
Diagnosis of disease: medical nosography, biochemical parameters
14.00La diagnosi: sovra e sottostima degli strumenti disponibili. Riflessi nella pratica clinica e nella formazione medica.
Diagnosys: over and underestimation of the available tools. Implications for clinical practice and
medical education.
Prof. Antonio Abbadessa
“F. Magrassi” Department of Clinical and Experimental Internal Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy
14.20
Il problema della diagnosi in medicina, significazione in medicina omeopatica
The problem of diagnosis in medicine, significance in homeopathic medicine
Dr. Nicola Maglione, M.D., Dr. Claudio Pastena, M.D. , L.U.I.M.O., Italy
Sperimentazione pura omeopatica – riprova clinica
Pathogenetic trials (provings) – clinical confirmation
15.00
Sperimentazione pura e riprova clinica
Pathogenetic trials and clinical confirmation
Dr. Matheus Marim
Brazilian Homeopathic Medicine Association, São Paulo, Brazil
15.20
Patogenesi nel processo di formazione ed auto-conoscimento del medico omeopatico
Pathogenesis as a formation and self-knowledge process of the homeopathic physician
Dr. Sandra Regina Adams, M.D.
CEH-SGH – Porto Alegre RS – Brasil
Diagnosi di malato: la storia biopatografica – rimedio
Diagnosis of patient: the biopathographical history – remedy
16.15
La storia clinica omeopatica delle malattie croniche nel quadro epistemologico omeopatico.
The Homeopathic clinical history in the homeopathic epistemological frame
Dr. Juan Carlos Pellegrino, M.D.
A.M.H.A., Buenos Aires, Argentina
16.35
Il percorso diagnostico in medicina omeopatica: metodologia per una prescrizione consapevole secondo la legge dei simili
Homeopathic diagnosis: a methodology for prescribing in accordance with the similia law
Dr. Pietro Federico, M.D.
L.M.H.I. Vice-president for Italy.
16.55
Il protocollo biopatografico: ritratto dell’uomo malato e strumento per la presa del caso clinico
The biopathographic protocol: portrait of the unity of the ill person and tool for clinical case
taking.
Dr. Fiorenza Baldi, Dr. Nicola Villano,
L.U.I.M.O, Naples, Italy
Clinica comparata: omeopatia, allopatia
Compared clinical medicine: homeopathy – conventional therapy
La porpora idiopatica in pediatria: un esempio di didattica
Idiopathic purpura in pediatrics: an example of didactics
Dr. Patricia Ricard-Le Roux, M.D.
Pediatrics, Marseille, France
17.35
Differenze metodologiche tra omeopatica e clinica tradizionale: una rassegna tra 2715 casi.
Methodogical differences between homeopathic and conventional clinics: a review from
2715 cases.
Dr. A. Aversa, M.D.; Dr. S. Mascoli, M.D.; Dr. E. Trabucco, M.D.
L.U.I.M.O., Naples, Italy
17.55
La malattia recidivante
The relapsing disease
Dr. Stefano Barni, M.D.
Homeopahtic Medicine Institute, Thiene, Italy
18.10
Chirurgia e Omeopatia
Surgery and Homeopathy
Dr. Salvatore Coco, M.D.
Homeopathic School of Catania, Italy
18.30
Un caso chirurgico di rettocolite ulcerosa
A ulcerous rectocolitis surgical case
Dr. Massimo Bassetti, M.D.
Accademia Italiana di Omeopatia Pediatrica - Aqui Terme, Italy
18.50
Dalla medicina convenzionale alla medicina omeopatica. Travaglio di un medico alla ricerca della sua unità.
From conventional to homeopathic medicine. The difficulty for an MD in uniting them both.
Dr. Viviana Rasulo, M.D.
Pediatrics, L.U.I.M.O., Naples Italy
19.10
Clinica comparata tra omeopatia e allopatia: esempi di trattamento di patologie acute e croniche.
Compared clinical medicine between homeopat by and Allopat by: examples of treatments in
chronical and acute cases.
Dr. Giuseppe Fagone, M.D., Dr. Antonia Ronchi, M.D, Dr. Giuseppe Petrucci, M.D
Centro di Omeopatia di Milano, Italy
27 Sunday – IV Session
Medicina tradizionale e medicina omeopatica a confronto
Official and homeopathic medicine in comparison
9.00
La giurisprudenza medica.
Medical jurisprudence.
Prof. Vincenzo Caianiello
Emeritus President of Constitutional Court, Italy
Prof. Franco Fabroni
Institute of Insurance, University of Perugia, Italy
Prof. Antonio Farneti
Institute for Legal Medicine of Insurance, University of Milan, Italy
Prof. Goffredo Sciaudone
R Chair of Legal Medicine of Insurance, Second University of Naples, Italy
11.15
Medicina Omeopatica, Ordine dei medici e registri
Homeopathic medicine, Order of physicians and registers
On. Dr. Giuseppe Del Barone
Presidente dell’ordine dei medici della Provincia di Napoli.
11.30
Verso una medicina del futuro: farmacogenomica o medicina omeopatica.
Toward the medicine of the future: pharmacogenomics or homeopathic medicine.
Dr. Proceso Sanchez Ortega
Homeopatia de Mexico, Mexico
11.50
Farmacogenomica e medicina omeopatica: due approcci simili con esiti differenti
Pharmacogenomics and homeopatic medicine: two similar starting points with different outputs
Dr. Vincenzo Rocco
L.U.I.M.O. – Naples, Italy
TAVOLA ROTONDA / ROUND TABLE
“L’insegnamento della medicina. Il programma universitario per il medico del futuro: l’omeopata”.
“Teaching Medicine. The University programme for the future medical doctor:
the homeopath”.
Prof. Paolo Marinelli
Hygienics , Second University of Naples, Italy
Dr. Alma Rodriguez, M.D.
L.U.I.M.O. President, Italy
Prof. Antonio Romano
Oculistics and Ophthalmology, University of Naples, Italy
Dr. Proceso Sanchez Ortega
Homeopatia de Mexico, Mexico
Dr. Jeremy Swayne
Dean, Faculty of Homoeopathy, U.K.
FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN MEDICINE IN THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: BETWEENOBJECTIVITY AND SUBJECTIVITY Prof. Dietrich von EngelhardtInstitute for History of Medicine and ScienceUniversity of Medicine – LübeckGermany Medicine in Antiquity was based on cosmology and anthropology. The cosmological theory of the four elements, fourqualities and four humors was combined with the anthropological approach of dietetics with its six dimensions: air and light,eating and drinking, motion and rest, sleep and wakefulness, secretions and emotions. The individual was declared responsiblefor his state of health or illness. Plato advised physicians to try influencing people’s lifestyle, Aristotle extended the platonicdistinction between a physician for slaves and physicians for free men by conceiving a third type of physician in the form of amedically informed layman. Even in antiquity we find the opposition –so fundamental for medicine up to the present day-between the history of the disease and the history of the patient, as well as the recognition that man’s usual state lies not somuch in extremes of health and illness as in an intermediate state of neutrality In the Middle Ages the ancient, cosmologically and anthropologically founded medicine was integrated in the religiousperspective of transcendence. Patient and physician were oriented to the figures of passio Christi and Christus medicus.
Health, illness and therapy reflect or realize symbolically the eschatological course of constitutio (paradise), destitutio (earthlylife) and restitutio (restoration). Illness could be considered sin or a religious test, and health not so much the absence ofdisease and suffering as the capacity to endure them. Pain and death were acknowledged to be essential characteristics of humanlife.
Modern Medicine stands under the principle of secularization, naturalization and individualization. The development from theRenaissance to the present with its scientific specialization and consequent loss of philosophical and religious reflection hasproduced many benefits, but, at the same time, has caused a lot of problems. Among these problems the dichotomy of naturalsciences and humanities, the separation of the descriptive from the normative dimensions, the respective different absolutizedphysical, mental or social approaches to the understanding of human being, are of primary importance. Deplorableconsequences arose not only for the patient, but also for his personal environment and for the physician.
Concepts of disease and health influence the manner and goal of medical therapy, as well as the relationship between thepatient and the physician. Alternative medicine can not be the solution, essential is the anthropological and ethical permeationof medicine. Disease is not a mere physical, but always also a psychic, social and spiritual phenomenon. Medical scienceshould above all see the ill and suffering person. But humanity in medicine presupposes humanities inn society and culture.
SVILUPPO MODERNO DELLA MEDICINA NELLA PROSPETTIVA ANTROPOLOGICA: TRA OGGETTIVITA’ ESOGGETTIVITA’ Nell’Antichità la Medicina si fondava sulla cosmologia e sull’antropologia. La teoria cosmologica dei 4 elementi, 4 qualità e4 umori si integrava con l’approccio antropologico all’alimentazione e con le sue 6 dimensioni: aria e luce, assunzione di ciboe di liquidi, movimento e riposo, sonno e veglia, secrezioni ed emozioni. L’individuo era ritenuto responsabile del propriostato di salute o di malattia. Platone suggeriva ai medici di cercare di influenzare lo stile di vita dei pazienti. Aristotele haampliato la differenziazione platonica tra medici per schiavi e medici per liberi, pensando ad una terza figura: laica ed edotta incampo medico. Già nell’antichità ritroviamo l’opposizione (così importante per la medicina ancora oggi) tra storia dellamalattia e storia del paziente, così come la consapevolezza del fatto che la condizione più frequente per l’uomo non coincidetanto negli estremi di salute e malattia, quanto piuttosto in uno stato intermedio di neutralità.
Con il Medioevo, l’antica visione di una medicina fondata su cosmologia ed antropologia viene ad integrarsi con laprospettiva religiosa della trascendenza.
Paziente e medico sono identificati rispettivamente con le immagini della passione di Cristo e di Cristo medico. Salute,malattia e terapia possono essere considerate come lo specchio o la materializzazione simbolica del percorso escatologico:constitutio (paradiso) – destitutio (vita terrena) – restitutio (redenzione). La malattia viene a coincidere col peccato o con unaprova divina, mentre lo stato di salute non è visto semplicemente come assenza di malattie e sofferenze ma piuttosto come lacapacità di tollerarle. Dolore e morte sono considerati tratti caratteristici della vita umana.
Nell’età moderna la Medicina si attiene ai principi di secolarizzazione, naturalizzazione e individualizzazione. Grazieall’evoluzione che si è avuta a partire dal Rinascimento, caratterizzata dalla specializzazione scientifica della medicina e quindidalla perdita di valenze filosofico-religiose, si sono ottenuti numerosi vantaggi. Non dimentichiamo però anche gliinnumerevoli problemi di cruciale importanza che ne sono scaturiti, quali la creazione di un’antitesi tra scienze naturali escienze umane, la separazione della dimensione descrittiva da quella normativa, la forte differenziazione degli approcci fisico,mentale o sociale alla comprensione dell’essere umano. Questo nuovo atteggiamento è purtroppo la causa di conseguenzenegative non solo per il paziente, ma anche per il suo intorno personale e per la figura del medico.
I concetti di “malattia” e “salute” influiscono notevolmente sia sulle metodologie e finalità della terapeutica medica, sia sulrapporto medico-paziente. La medicina alternativa non può essere una soluzione esauriente: l’essenza del problema risiedeinfatti nella capacità della medicina di lasciarsi permeare dall’antropologia e dall’etica. La malattia non è soltanto un semplicedisturbo fisico, ma si configura come fenomeno di ordine psichico, sociale e spirituale. La scienza medica deve allora in primoluogo guardare all’individuo malato e sofferente. Ma l’attenzione all’uomo in medicina presuppone un nuovo umanesimoanche nella società e nella cultura.
Dietrich von Engelhardt is the director of Institute for History of Medicine and Science at University of Medicine in Lübeck,Germany. He is the author of several imporant books concerning Philosophy of Medicine and Medical Ethics. Among them:Mit der krankheit leben. Grundlagen und Perspectiven der Copingstruktur des Patienten (Heidelberg, 1986); Medizin in derLiteratur der Neuzeit (Hürtgewald, 1991); Klassiker der Medizin (Münche, 1991), co-author F.Hartmann.
FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY TECHNOLOGICAL MEDICINE AND SOCIETY:INDIRECT INFLUENCES OR IMPOSITION? Prof. Carlos Santa MaríaDepartment of Sociology of DevelopmentUniversity of NariñoColombia Conventional Medicine is fallen into the trap of consumerism, profit and power. As a consequence various specializations(those concerning psychological sphere included) come out and break the whole man in pieces. Unity, entirety, identity ofbeing are lost. However now this method of the conventional and technological Medicine has come to a crucial point andshould redefine its principles.
In the present social context (consumerism, lack of respect for the being) also Homeopathic Medicine should run some risk.
So it should reflect on questions like the following ones:- the trend toward the globalization of any form of alternative knowledge the profit as element pervading and corrupting collective consciousness the diffusion of effectiveness of Homeopathic Medicine aiming at its university acknowledgement the growth of homeopaths and society, according to the principle of coherence.
Humanology is the scientific discipline dealing with the development of human talent. It focuses on human dimension,achieving a material balanced condition, real reality, defense of principles, turning to science, making theory to be effectivein society.
In this direction and trusting in the constructive evolution of human being, Humanology acknowledges HomeopathicMedicine as an effective and well-grounded scientific discipline on transcendence. Its development is looked upon as necessarymedical and preventive instrument.
Moreover, Humanology wishes all advanced medical, social and human disciplines come together in order to increase theintegral development of our society.
Carlos Santa María is humanologist. He studied social, political and philosophical sciences in Chile and Spain. He is authorof more than twelve books on human behavior. He is also the founder of humanology, the discipline dealing with the humanessence and the positive construction of social possibilities. At the present time, he is the director of Department ofSociology of Development at University of Nariño.
FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY CONSEQUENCES OF TECHNOLOGICAL MEDICINE ON SOCIETY: COMPARISON AMONG SOCIAL CONTEXTSWITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT Dr. Manuel Albán Lucio, MDInternational Relations“Bolivar” University – GuarandaEcuador In Ecuador, development plains often concern emarginated groups. Especially education is taken into great account.
In this perspective the country subscribed a large number of international agreements aiming at modifying either thepossibility of acceding to education or the idea of an education looked upon as responsible of social inequalities.
Social reality has different levels of development and thus, not official activities representing the 42% of economically activepopulation, gives rise to new social problems and crisis.
In a so difficult social context, we will explain different strategies on projects of analysis and political projection of health.
In the second part, we will present different scientific groups, from all over the Latin America, studying the development ofmodern technological tools for functional stimulation, successfully employed for the treatment of a large number of diseases.
Manuel Albán Lucio is medical doctor. He has been director of the International Relations of “Bolivar” University inGuaranda, Ecuador. At the same University he also was dean for the Faculty of Sciences of Health, for six years. He studiedbiomedical engineering, human development, international relations, international cooperation.
FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY THE UNIVERSITY IN UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS: AN EXAMPLE OF CULTURAL INTEGRATION BETWEENTECHNOLOGY AND TRADITION. THE EXPERIENCE OF REGIONAL UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH AMERICA:TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION, HUMAN REALITY Ing. Gabriel Galarza LopezChancellor of “Bolivar” University – GuarandaEcuador The present paper aims at analyzing the origins of Regional Universities in South-America and the creation of a networkincluding Red UREL, which purposes involve the integration of revalued ancestral cultures and the western one.
In south-American Universities the discussion about the nature of knowledge has begun. So the knowledge of autochthonouspopulations and consequently a new formulation of the concept of science and the rebound of technology have been takeninto consideration. This approach leads to define the true contents of globalization and its effect on human society and,moreover, it gives emphasis to the valuable diversity of the Andean culture.
As a consequence, the discussion will also involve themes such as values, human being, notion of science.
Finally, we will focus on Ecuador: the new Constitutional Chart provides for the increasing of cultural values and thepossibilities of development and application for disciplines not included in the official science. It is the case, for example, ofMedicine: according to item 84 of the Constitution and corresponding to what happens in the other south-American countries,university medical teaching should be unique and absolute.
Gabriel Galarza Lopez is Chancellor of “Bolivar” University in Guaranda, Ecuador FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY Prof. Sabino PalumbieriPhilosophical AnthropologySalesian Papal University The aim of the present paper is to point out the following questions: historical situation: the nothing of “culture” and the culture of “nothing” culture of things and reductionisms, “man is nothing but” existential condition between pathology and logopathy need of a new beginning: to auscultate the integrum multiplicity of: -level of existential CONSTITUTION: the “in itself”, the “for itself”, the “for others” level of existential CONDITION: the bound between being and not being level of existential CONCENTRATION: the person as center of the whole volume of human bein g trinomial and the rise in quality of being between biotic and metabiotic dimension primacy of spirituality making sense to materiality data are not enough for man. He is looking for the meaning being man as fieri humanum: future and hope La situazione storica: il niente della “cultura” e la cultura del “niente”.
La cultura delle cose e i riduzionismi: “man is nothing but”.
La condizione esistenziale tra patologia e logopatia.
Urgenza di ripartire: auscultare l’integrum.
L’uomo come meraviglia e paradosso.
L’uomo come unitas multiplex.
Molteplicità : - del livello della COSTITUZIONE esistenziale: l’in sé, il per sé, il per altri;- del livello della CONDIZIONE esistenziale: il limite tra l’essere e il non essere; del livello della CON-CENTRAZIONE esistenziale: la persona come centro del volume totale dell’essere umano.
I corti circuiti a livello di essere.
Corporeità e linguaggio corporeo.
Atipicità della corporeità dell’uomo.
Trinomia e salto di qualità nell’essere tra dimensione biotica e metabiotica.
Il primato dello spirituale per il senso del materiale.
All’uomo non basta il dato. Cerca il significato.
Essere uomo come fieri humanum; il futuro e la speranza.
Sabino Palumbieri is full professor of Philosophical Anthropology at the Salesian Papal University. Author of a largenumber of works on the roots of actual phenomena, looked upon from an anthropological perspective. From his numerousbibliography: e’ possibile essere uomo? (1979) , Sulle tracce del Cristo (1982), Volto,, cuore e mani dell’uomo (1983),L’Europa e l’uomo (1984), Lettere Della Speranza (1985), L’ateismo e l’uomo (1986), Cristo Risorto leva della storia (1989), Una pasqua per il sud (1990),FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY Dr.Alma Rodriguez, MDPresident of L.U.I.M.O. – NaplesItaly In its normal condition, human being life is a process of continuos recovery, a continuos movement in our biologicalstructure inducing –at each time- the energy to compensate for balanced and imbalanced conditions, produced by both internalvital activity and environmental interactions.
Man is completely immersed in a single energetic field.
Therefore, vital activity is observable both in the healthy and ill condition. It expresses itself through the psychosensorialstate, by means of peculiar and special signs and series of symptoms, individualizing man as “himself”, his own particularhealthy or ill condition.
Both normal and pathological life belong to a single vital and energetic path.
The process of normal life does not differ from that of the pathological life; the difference is represented only by the reactions,that express themselves in the language of sufferance by means of signs and series of symptoms, so that is to say through achange of condition.
In the same way in which -by following the temporal and spatial hierarchy of disorders, signs and symptoms- we fall ill wecan also recover (hippocratic vis medicatrix naturae - reversibility).
The pathogenetic key, similar to signs and symptoms to any natural disease, is represented by Hahnemann’s insight intoproving on healthy individuals of drugs, in a continuously and successively reduced dose up the ultramolecular one.
Thus, the derived remedy (secondary effect of the drug) acts like nature, replacing it. Similia similibus curentur as corollary tovis medicatrix naturae.
In the pathogenesis of provings, health and its preservation as well as prevention of chronic and epidemic diseases arepotentially turned into the ultramolecular remedy, the pulsating inductor of reversibility of natural pathologic processes.
Proving – diagnosis –prognosis – treatment – are all in a single vital path.
Konrad Lorenz said: “to formulate a gnoseology, grounded on knowledge of biological and phylogenetic mechanism and –atthe same time- to outline a picture of man, corresponding to that gnoseology. This involves the try for looking upon man asan object of scientific observation”With Hahnemann the method in medicine became objective.
The new biomolecular discoveries, which increase exponentially along the years, break ancient concepts in medicine. What weare learning at medical Universities has to come to a methodological and conceptual turning point. Homeopathic Medicine cancontribute to the increase of the knowledge in medical science, but needs autonomy of teaching and research.
La vita dell’uomo persona umana nello stato di normalità, è un processo di continua guarigione, un continuo movimento delnostro assetto biologico che ad ogni istante mobilizza l’energia compensando equilibri o squilibri indotti sia dall’attività vitaleinterna che dall’interazione con l’ambiente.
L’uomo è immerso in un unico campo di energia.
Pertanto l’attività vitale è visibile in salute e malattia, si manifesta attraverso lo stato psico sensoriale per mezzo di segni eserie di sintomi peculiari ed eccezionali che individualizzano il “LUI”, il suo stato di salute e di malattia.
La vita normale e la vita patologica sono in un’unica traiettoria vitale energetica.
Il processo normale della vita non è differente dalla vita patologica; i due processi sono differenti solo nelle reazioni che simanifestano con segni e serie di sintomi, nel linguaggio della sofferenza, ossia del cambiamento di stato.
Come ci si ammala, seguendo nel tempo e nello spazio la gerarchia dei disturbi, segni e sintomi, nello stesso modo temporalee spaziale siamo in grado di guarire (vis medicatrix naturae ippocratica – reversibilità).
L’intuizione di Hahnemann della sperimentazione delle droghe a dosi continuamente e successivamente ridotte finoall’ultramolecolare su sperimentatori sani, sono la chiave di lettura patogenetica SIMILE ai segni e sintomi di ogni stato dimalattia naturale.
Pertanto il rimedio che ne deriva (effetto secondario della droga), imita la natura, sostituendosi ad essa – similia similibuscurentur, corollario della natura medicatrix.
La salute e la sua conservazione, così come la prevenzione degli stati di malattia, cronica ed epidemica, sono potenzialmentenelle patogenesi della sperimentazione pura delle droghe trasformate nel rimedio ultramolecolare, pulsante induttore dellareversibilità dei processi patologici naturali.
Sperimentazione – diagnosi – prognosi – terapia – in un’unica traiettoria vitale.
Lorenz ci dice: “formulare una gnoseologia fondata sulla conoscenza dei meccanismi biologici e filogenetici dell’uomo econtemporaneamente delineare una immagine dell’uomo corrispondente appunto ad una tale gnoseologia. Ciò implica iltentativo di fare dello spirito umano un oggetto di osservazione scientifica”.
Hahnemann ha oggettivato il metodo in medicina.
La medicina insegnata nelle università oggi è ad una svolta metodologica e concettuale.
L’individuazione, sempre in aumento, di nuove malattie, ed insieme alle nuove scoperte nel campo della biologia molecolare,la definizione di malattia dovrà essere “rimodernizzata” alla luce del fatto che per molte affezioni fenomenologiche simili lecause genetiche apparenti possono essere molteplici e diverse.
Alma Rodriguez is medical doctor. She studied Homeopathic Medicine under the teaching of Dr. Martin Kelber in Venezuela.
In 1971 she created CEMON (Homeopathic Medical Center of Neaples) for the development and the diffusion of HomeopathicMedicine in Italy. In 1976, she founded L.U.I.M.O. together with Dr. Tomas Paschero (Argentina), Dr. Proceso SanchezOrtega (Mexico) and Prof. Antonio Negro (Italy). Presently, she is president of L.U.I.M.O.
FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE AND THE SCIENTIFIC THEORIES AT THE TIME OF ITS BIRTH Prof. Antonino Drago*, Dr.Sergio Maradei, MD*** Group of History of Theoretical Physics“Federico II” University – NaplesItaly** Group of “Omeopatia Mediterranea” – NaplesItaly The current epistemological status of homeopathy is considered in the framework of history of science. A new interpretationis suggested as a consequence of recent studies on the foundation of logic; they address to remark in the original texts theoccurrences of double negated statements as manifesting arguments pertaining to a non-classical logic, and at the last to anorganization of a scientific theory which is in alternative to the traditional, deductive one. Hahnemann’s writings arescrutinized according to this method, which offers relevant, objective material for historical studies. A more accurate interpretation of Hahnemann’s thinking results. Moreover, this interpretation is improved by means of a similar method toKoyré’s classical one for interpreting the birth of modern science. Some new suggestions on the epistemological status ofhomeopathy are added.
OMOEPATIA E TEORIE SCIENTIFICHE DEL SUO TEMPO In questo intervento, si inscriverà l’attuale statuto epistemologico dell’Omeopatia nel quadro della storia della scienza.
Recenti studi sui fondamenti della logica ne suggeriscono una nuova interpretazione: si sottolinea il fatto che nei testioriginali ricorrono spesso frasi doppiamente negate per esprimere argomenti relativi alla logica non classica e chel’oragnizzazione della teoria scientifica è in alternativa a quella tradizionale e deduttiva. Gli scirtti di Hahnemann vengonoanalizzati seguendo questo metodo, che offre spunti rilevanti ed oggettivi per studi di tipo storico. Ne scaturisceun’interpretazione più accurata del pensiero di Hahnemann. Inoltre, questa interpretazione è supportata dagli studi classici diKoyré sulla genesi della scienza moderna. Infine, verrano proposte ulteriori riflessioni sullo statuto epistemologicodell’Omoepatia.
Sergio Maradei is medical doctor and psychologist. He studied Homeopathic Medicine at O.M.E.O., L.U.I.M.O.,Homeopatia de Mexico and acupuncture in Bologna. Teacher and founder member of “Omeopatia Mediterranea” in Naples.
Antonino Drago has been full professor of History of Physics at “Federico II” University in Naples, since 1973. He is theauthor of many publications, in particular Le due opzioni (Molfetta, 1991) a book explaining the bases of science, by meansof an historical synthesis of its evolution.
FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY TEACHING HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE ALL OVER THE WORLD Dr. Michel van Wassenhoven, MDUnio Homeopathica BelgicaBelgium The aim of this presentation is to overview the different regulations of the teaching of homeopathic medicine all over theworld and to recommend a new approach of the teaching of medicine. In the first part the author talks about a condenseddescription of the Belgian Consensus on teaching standards. Homeopathy is one of the four recognised non-conventionalmedicines in Belgium. In the second part, the overview of homeopathy over the world will demonstrate that universities areinvolved in teaching homeopathy in one third of the countries and in another third of the countries teaching homeopathy islegally recognised. Mostly, the national homeopathic associations control teaching homeopathy. Teaching homeopathy ismuch more than simply teaching, there is a need for integrated teaching of medicine. Teachers and students have to beinvolved in research programmes about “proving”, data collection, well-being studies, retrospective studies and eventually double blind studies. Over the world, homeopathy get more and more an official recognised status, teaching homeopathy mustbe of high quality and linked to the consensus about daily practice and research results.
Michel Van Wassenhoven is medical doctor, specialist of electrocardiography and General Medicine. He has been dealing withHomeopathic medicine since 1979. He has been the President of Unio Homeopathica Belgica since 1986 and the Vice-President of L.M.H.I. since 1995. Member of many international academic association and committees. Board committee ofBritish Homeopathic Journal and Revue Belge d’Homéopathie. Author of more than 35 scientific articles on Homeopathicmedicine and some books, such as : Sur la route de la guérison – L’Homéopathie (1983) ; Homéopathie : Lescomplémentarités des remèdes (1987) ; Homéopathie : Les complémentarités des remèdes (1987) ; Traité d’Immunothérapie(1989).
FIRST SESSION: MEDICINE AND SOCIAL REALITY MAIN INFLUENCES OF MODERN SCIENCE ON HOMEOPATHY:A SHORT REVIEW Dr. Ermenegildo Caccese*, Dr. Giovanna Silvestri, MD*** Department of Mathematics,University of Basilicata – Potenza, Italy** U.O.P.C. Distr.40 Asl CE/2, Castelvolturno (CE), Italy In the present work we evaluate the influence of various philosophical and scientific tendencies on Homeopathy since itsorigins. Moving from Hanemann studies, we first analyse the general context of the beginning of Homeopathy, i.e. vitalismand myasmatic doctrine. Subsequently, we shortly reconstruct the progressive shift of Allopathy from aristotelism, throughGalileian method, up to current version of reductionism. We suggest that both a passive attitude towards tradition and, lateron, the need of a rational foundation by medical community, relegated Homeopathy out of the mainstream: in this frameworkmore descriptive approaches, like Homeopathy or Constitutionalism, could not find place. To explain the current shift of therefusal of Homeopathy towards a censoring attitude, we argue that a complex mixture of socioeconomic and philosophicaltendencies plays a slowing down role on alternative approaches. On the oter hand, during 19th and 20th centuries, manypositive influences on Homeopathy can be recognized. For instance, emphasis on mind by Psycoanalysis helps Homeopathy get rid of the metaphysical premises. We give some examples. Further contributions come from modern Constitutionalism,from Theories of Complexity, and from Cognitivism. Finally, we postulate that evidence-based medicine and ethics can alsohelp growth of Homeopathy, showing the superiority of homeopathic versus allopathic proving.
BREVE RASSEGNA DELLE MAGGIORI INFLUENZE DELLA SCIENZA MODERNA SULL’OMEOPATIA In questo lavoro prendiamo in considerazione l’influenza esercitata da varie correnti filosofiche e scientifiche sull’Omeopatia, apartire dalle sue origini. Iniziamo con lo studio dell’opera di Hahnemann per analizzare poi il contesto generale agli alboridell’Omeopatia, rappresentato essenzialmente dal vitalismo e dalla dottrina dei miasmi. In seguito, ricostruiamo brevemente ilprogressivo spostamento dell’allopatia dall’aristotelismo all’attuale versione del riduzionismo, passando per il metodogalileiano. Si osserva come dapprima un atteggiamento passivo nei confronti della tradizione e, poi, il bisogno difondamenti razionali abbiano relegato l’Omeopatia al di fuori della corrente principale delle scienze biomediche. Inoltre, perspiegare l’attuale atteggiamento di rifiuto nei confronti dell’Omeopatia in favore di una posizione censoria, si vedrà come unacomplessa mescolanza di motivazioni socioeconomiche e filosofiche tenda a frenare gli approcci alternativi. D’altro canto, nelcorso dei secoli 19° e 20°, si possono facilmente individuare numerose influenze positive esercitate da altre scienzesull’Omeopatia. Ad esempio, l’enfasi data alla dimensione mentale dalla Psicoanalisi aiuta l’Omeopatia a liberarsi da premessemetafisiche. Presentiamo alcuni esempi in proposito. Ulteriori contributi provengono dal moderno Costituzionalismo, dalleTeorie della Complessità e dal Cognitivismo. Infine, postuliamo che anche l’etica e una medicina basata sull’evidenzapossano contribuire alla crescita dell’Omeopatia, mostrando la superiorità della sperimentazione omeopatica rispetto a quellaallopatica Ermenegildo Caccese is researcher in Mathematical Physics at the University of Basilicata in Potenza, Italy. His last researchsubjects are: fundamentals of theory of relativity; historical development –from Descartes to present theories- of theapproaches on continuous and discrete. Giovanna Silvestri is medical doctor andhomeopath. She is practicing at U.O.P.C. Distr. 40 – Asl CE/2 in Castelvolturno(CE), Italy. Master in epidemiology of drug addiction. Her present researches concern: fundamentals of homeopathy, medicalepistemology.
SECOND SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE Prof. Erhard Oeser, PhDInstitute for Theory of Science and Scientific ResearchUniversity of WienAustria The present paper will focus on the question about the principles of scientific knowledge, taking into particular account thepluralism of methods in Medicine.
The following general principles are necessarily required as basic features of Science.
Repeatability of principle and verifiability.
The restriction to a repeatability of principle (i.e. not absolute) is definitely meaningful, since Medicine -unlike otherscientific disciplines- never has to do with the repetition of exactly the same phenomena.
A further feature of the scientific knowledge is the communicability of principle. That means medical knowledge andexperience should be teachable and learnable. A logical-consistent, not contradictory and understandable representation isassumed.
The methodological principles of repeatability, logical consistency, communicability and empirical verifiability form a cyclicframe, linking the formulation of hypotheses and theories with the experience. In this way, not only the explicative but alsoand primarily the prognostic function of a scientific theory appears to be the fundamental principle of Science.
In questo contributo si discuterà dei criteri della scientificità e un particolare riguardo verrà posto al problema del pluralismodei metodi in medicina.
Ripetitibilità di principio e verificabilità sono i criteri strettamente indispensabili e generalmente validi perché si possa parlaredi modo di procedere scientifico. La restrizione ad una ripetitibilità di principio e non assoluta è di decisiva importanza poichéin medicina, a differenza di quanto accade nelle altre discipline scientifiche, non si ha mai a che fare con la ripetizione difenomeni esattamente identici.
Un ulteriore requisito della conoscenza scientifica è la comunicabilità di principio: ciò significa che la conoscenza el’esperienza medica devono poter essere insegnate ed apprese. Questo a sua volta presuppone un’organizzazione dei contenutiche sia logicamente coerente, non contraddittoria e quindi ben comprensibile.
I criteri metodologici di ripetitibilità, coerenza logica, comunicabilità e verificabilità empirica formano una struttura ciclicache collega la costruzione di ipotesi e teorie con l’esperienza e grazie alla quale la funzione non solo esplicativa ma anchedi previsione di una teoria scientifica viene a costituire il criterio essenziale per la scientificità.
Erhard Oeser studied philosophy and psychology in Germany and Austria. Since 1972 he has been full professor ofPhilosophy and Philosophy of Science at the University of Vienna, where he is now head of the Institute for Philosophy ofScience and Social Studies of Science. He is in the board of directors of the Austrian Society for History of Science, and inthe executive board of the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research. Besides, he is president of theInternational Information Centre for Terminology, and the scientific director of the Karl Popper Institute in Vienna.
The fields of his research include philosophy and history of science, evolutionary epistemology, epistemological problems ofthe brain sciences, and legal philosophy. He has published 13 books and numerous articles. Among his books are System,Klassifkation, Evolution: Historische Analyse und Rekonstruktion der wissenschaftstheoretischen Grundlagen der Biologie(1974); Wissenschaft und Information (3 volumes, 1976); Psychozoikum: Evolution und Mechanismus der menschlichenErkenntnisfähigkeit (1987); Das Abenteuer der kollektiven Vernunft: Evolution und Involution der Wissenschaft (1988);Evolution und Selbstkonstruktion des Rechts ( 1990).
SECOND SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE Prof. Franz M. Wuketits, PhDInstitute for Theory of ScienceUniversity of WienAustria The present paper aims at giving a survey of some of central aspects concerning philosophy of biology. In particular, itoutlines the specificity of biological thinking and the place of biology in the orchestra of natural sciences. I argue that theunderstanding of the complexity of living beings requires a system-theoretical approach, and that the analytical method has tobe accompanied by synthetic, holistic thinking. Also, I discuss the meaning of the holistic approach for medicine.
Among the philosophical issues in contemporary biology the following are most important in the present context:1.
Reduction/Reductionism: Can biology be reduced to chemistry and physics? What are the specific types of laws in biological science? The relation between analysis and synthesis (“reduction” and “composition”) After all, I pose the question to which extent the old and venerable problem “What is Life?” has found a solution on the basisof contemporary biological thinking Lo scopo di questo intervento è quello di esaminare alcuni aspetti centrali della filosofia della biologia. In particolare, tratteròdella specificità del pensiero biologico e della collocazione della biologia nell’ambito delle scienze naturali. Mostrerò come,per comprendere la complessità degli esseri viventi, sia necessario un approccio teorico sistemico e come il metodo analiticodebba essere sostenuto da un pensiero sintetico e olistico. Discuterò inoltre del significato di un approccio olistico inmedicina.
Tra i problemi filosofici che riguardano la moderna biologica, i più rilevanti per i nostri interessi sono:1.
Riduzione/Riduzionismo: la biologia può essere ridotta alla chimica e alla fisica? Quali sono gli specifici tipi di legge validi per la scienza biologica? Relazione tra analisi e sintesi (riduzione e composizione) Autonomia della biologia come scienza.
Infine, considererò fino a che punto il vecchio e venerando problema “Che cos’è la vita?” abbia trovato una soluzione in baseall’attuale pensiero biologico.
Franz M. Wuketits studied zoology, paleontology, philosophy, and philosophy of science at the University of Vienna. Heteaches philosophy of science, particularly philosophy of biology at the University of Vienna. Also, he has been lecturer forphilosophy of biology at the University of Graz since 1987, and besides he is now Visiting Professor at the TechnicalUniversity of Vienna. In 1982 he received the Austrian Award for Scientific Publishing. 1990/1991 he was ManagingDirector of the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research. His main fields of research are history andtheory of the life sciences, evolutionary theory, evolutionary epistemology, and evolutionary ethics. He has lecturedextensively at Universities in Europe and overseas. He has published 22 books, edited or co-edited 10 volumes, and is authorof about 250 publications in journals, readers, etc.
SECOND SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE Prof. Jean Gayon, PhDEpistemology and History of Sciences of Life and HealthParis 7 UniversityFrance The term “Biology” appeared at the beginning of nineteenth century in order to identify the project for an unified Science ofLife. The main philosophical models about the notion of Life were antecedent to the emergency of the new discipline.
Three of them are here analyzed: animation, mechanism and organization. Three main philosophers gave a firm content tothese general concepts of Life: Aristotle, Descartes, Kant. They all conceived Life in an anthropomorphic perspective. Thusprojected on the whole of living beings the classical anthropological figures. In fact, we see that: the idea of living being as animated being recalls the image of the man as a rational animal the idea of living being as a machine recalls the image of homo faber the idea of living being as organism makes one think to the political animal.
In the present paper, the three above-mentioned concepts of Life are analyzed, together with the involved metaphors.
Jean Gayon is philosopher and biologist. He teaches Epistemology and History of Sciences of Life and Health in Paris,France. He is member of many academic associations and committees, such as: National Committee for history andphilosophy of sciences; National Committee of CNR; National Committee for University; scientific committee of MaxPlank Institute in Berlin. He is editor-in-chief of Revue d’histoire et de sciences.
SECOND SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE Dr. Maria Wuketits, PhDKarl Popper InstituteUniversity of WienAustria The aim of the paper is to elaborate a definition of health on the basis of an equilibrium conception of the relation “man-environment”. For this purpose both notions – “man” and “environment”- will be examined, extrapolating then theirinterdependence on different levels.
The environment reveals itself as an interaction between two objectively existing realities, conventionally called “natural” and“anthropomorphic”. The first is characterized on the basis of the relation of “cause and effect”, while the second is determinedthrough the formulae of human activity: “goal-means-result”.
Man is looked upon as an entity of three main determinants: biological, psychological and social. Respectively, the problemof human health has to be dealt with on the level of each determinant and from the perspective of its interrelations with bothobjective realities.
Such an approach to the notion of human health would be complementary to the one of the traditional medicine and wouldensure a holistic perception of man in this aspect.
Lo scopo di questo intervento è quello di arrivare ad una definizione dello stato di salute in base alla concezione di equilibrionella relazione “uomo – ambiente”. Per questo entrambi i concetti – “uomo” e “ambiente”- verranno esaminati e se neestrapoleranno le reciproche interdipendenze a diversi livelli.
L’ambiente si rivela come interazione tra due realtà oggettive, convenzionalmente chiamate “naturale” e “antropomorfica”. Laprima è caratterizzata in base alla relazione “causa – effetto”, mentre la seconda è determinata dalla formula dell’attività umana:“fine – mezzi – risultato”.
L’uomo viene considerato come la risultante di tre componenti: biologica, psicologica e sociale. Il problema della saluteumana deve essere affrontato al livello di ciascuna delle componenti e anche dal punto di vista delle sue interrelazioni conentrambe le realtà oggettive.
Un simile approccio alla nozione di salute umana risulta complementare a quello della medicina tradizionale e assicura unapercezione olistica dell’uomo.
Maria Wuketits studied philosophy and philology at the University of Sofia. She was visiting researcher in Moskau,Dubrovnik, London. Since 1990 she is living in Austria and is now with the Karl Popper Institute at the University ofVienna. She has published numerous articles on problems of philosophy of technology, science and ethics, and socialphilosophy. For the last years she has been mainly focussing problems concerning “man and society”. She is also working astranslator and interpreter.
SECOND SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE MAN, SCIENCE, MEDICINE: MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Prof. Armando Savignano, PhDUniversity of TriesteItaly Medicine is, at the same time, science and art.
This is the reason of its peculiar scientific and epistemological statute as it has been characterized since the ancient teachingof Ippocrates and Plato. From the crisis of sciences in nineteenth century, this statute has been under discussion.
The same Medicine, to whom we ask the healing, is on its turn ill. It almost is a platitude to prescribe high doses of medicalethics to cure Medicine. This is a symptom that Medicine constitutes a problem. And this problem can be, in some way,solved thanks to an anthropological perspective, which takes into account anxiety as a feature of the human being too.
Medical anthropology is crucial for getting over the crisis of conventional Medicine, since also the notion of health anddisease need to be approached in a different way because of the new contribution of technology, ethics and , most of all,medical anthropology.
In accordance with this new perspective, basic features of medical anthropology in the horizon of humanistic Medicine will behere outlined.
UOMO, SCIENZA, MEDICINA: L’ANTROPOLOGIA MEDICA La medicina è una scienza ed un’arte; di qui il suo peculiare statuto scientifico-epistemologico, com’emerge sin dall’antichità apartire dall’insegnamento ippocratico e da quello platonico. Tale statuto è stato ulteriormente messo in discussione a partiredalla crisi delle scienze iniziata nel secolo scorso. La medicina di cui ci serviamo per guarirci è, a sua volta, malata. Comerimedio è oggi diventato quasi un luogo comune prescrivere iniezioni di etica medica, magari a dosi consistenti. Tutto ciò èsintomo che la medicina costituisce un problema, che può essere in qualche modo avviato a soluzione soprattutto alla luce diuna concezione antropologica secondo la quale anche l’essere umano è caratterizzato dall’inquietudine. L’antropologia medicaè decisiva per uscire dalla crisi della medicina tradizionale, poiché la stessa idea di salute e di malattia necessitano di nuoviapprocci alla luce dei contributi mutuati non solo dalla scienza tecnologica ma anche dall’etica e specialmentedall’antropologia medica. Alla luce di questa prospettiva vengono delineati alcuni caratteri fondamentali dell’antropologiamedica nell’orizzonte di una medicina umanistica.
Armando Savignano is full professor of Moral Philosophy and Bioethics in Trieste, Italy. The fields of his research include:bioethics, medical ethics, social medicine. Some of his most recent books are: Bioetica delle virtù (Napoli, 1999), P. LainEntralgo: Il medico e il malato (Bologna, 1999) –A. Savignano ed.
SECOND SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL CRISIS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON THE AREA OF HEALTH SCIENCES Prof. Maximo ChaparroNational Technological University – Buenos AiresArgentina 1.- The epistemological paradigm of european modernity has reached crisis point on the contemporary thinking, especially inthis second half of de century. The emergence of new epistomologies has consequences on different fields:a) on the epistemological field theoretical lines which offer a different concept of both scientific and technological knowledge converge; b) from this point of view, a great value on the different “ways of man’s rationality” arises; c) theanalytical dissection of the object of knowledge, peculiar to modern science is followed, in a complementary manner, byalternative lines which demand systemic looks; d) and that has a deep effect on education, on all of its levels and varieties; e)university teaching –in this point- has a relevant role in the design of new curriculums where “complete education” is not amere nominalism (doctors’ traditional education is described).
2.- The crisis of man’s concept at the end of the millenium has causes of different nature: one of them is expressed in the“reductionism” which was led by “the method” of traditional science. “Physics’ imperialism” –which was present until thebeginning of the 20th century- constituted a guiding principle of the Medical Colleges. The expressions in doctors’ classicaleducation are multiple and multiple and of diverse type.
3.- The above-mentioned “reductionism”has its explanation on the anthropological view of modern rationality, for which aparticular thing dissolves in the general law, and the experimental quantitive contains the whole of the human being. Fromthis viewpoint, there is coherence in the exclusion of other ways of rationality and in the denial of new scientific methods–critically susceptible of being false.
4.- The dissolution of the human subject in health sciences, as an integrated multidimensional reality, is an inevitableconclusion. This does not mean to ignore the imponderable achievements of modern science but simply to state their limitsand the need for alternative lines just as contemporary epistemologies propose.
5.- One of the consequences of the above-mentioned consists of the necessity to reformulate the curriculum designs of theMedical Colleges, holding a debate about its implicit epistemology which becomes noticeable in the traditional methods ofteaching and learning.
6.- The subtitle: “A look from Latin America” has a double purpose: a) the rationality of european modernity is almostconstituent for us and from here identical and/or analogous challenges emerge for the transformation of university teaching andparticularly in the field of health sciences; b) regardless of what I have already said in the previous point, the Latin Americanworld constitutes a new and nascent anthropological type, and from there its challenges are singular.
Maximo Chaparro has been full professor of Social Sciences at National University of Technology in Buenos Aires,Argentina since 1975. He cooperates with minister for education and culture. He is the author of numerous scientific articlesand books, such as: América Latina, liberación y filosofía (1992) ; El hombre y su mundo cultural (1993); Tecnología: undesafío (1996); Epistemología y educación (1998) ; Epistemología del conocimiento Tecnológico.
SECOND SESSION: SCIEINCE AND KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING HOMEOPATHIC METHODOLOGY FROM SYSTEM THINKING Dr. Fernand Debats, MDE.C.H. Education Subcommittee Co-ordinatorThe Netherlands The phenomenon of diadoxis, or morbid substitution as it was formerly called, appears to be the subject matter ofHahnemanns scientific research as reported in his original works on homoeopathy, The Organon of Medicine' and Thechronic diseases'. Diadoctic changing of disease, as for instance the transition of asthma into eczema, has been thoroughlystudied by Hahnemann, which has led to the discovery of two laws: the law of Similars and Hering's law. The homeopathicmethod, however, is more than only the application of these two laws. A number of models, rules, procedures based onexperience, and skills are needed next to them to allow the choice of an homeopathic remedy in a given case. If it would besufficient to only apply the two laws it would not be so difficult to find a remedy. One of the main reasons for that is thathomeopathy is not based on causal-analytical thinking, but on synthetic thinking or systems thinking.
Knowledge of some elementary principles of systems thinking appears to essentially facilitate the understanding of thepractical homeopathic methodology and make it much more transparent. From the point of view of systems thinking it isabsolutely logical that one needs information about the highest possible level of an organism in order to understand what isgoing wrong in case of a disease. As living organisms are organized wholes, the higher system levels of the organism containthe most refined information about its organization.
The plan of a building contains more information than the separate bricks and sand. Without a plan, there would be nobuilding at all. For that reason mental symptoms are so important in homeopathy, without a mind there would be no human being at all. If we can find the features that characterize an organism as a living organism and subsequently the manifestationsof disturbed life, we have found the symptoms that guide us to the homeopathic remedy. A corpse cannot be chilly, althoughit is colder than a living human being, a corpse cannot cough, although it has died from pneumonia. The characteristics ofmatter, on which cellular pathological categories are based, are from the point of view of systems thinking far less importantfor the description of disease than the characteristics of life as they are used in homeopathic diagnosis. Von Bertalanffy, thefounder of system's thinking asked the question that matters: What exactly is the difference between a living, a dead and adiseased organism.'Homeopathy is engaged in that question.
LA METODOLOGIA OMEOPATICA NELLA PROSPETTIVA DEL PENSIERO SISTEMICO Come risulta dai lavori fondamentali sulla Medina Omeopatica, “Organon di Medicina” e “Le malattie croniche”, la ricercascientifica di Hahnemann si è occupata della diadossia (?), espressione formale per indicare il fenomeno di sostituzione dellasintomatologia morbosa. Lo studio approfondito della sostituzione diadottica delle malattie (ciò che accade ad esempio quandoun’asma si trasforma in eczema) ha condotto Hahnemann alla scoperta di meccanismi basilari, poi formulati nella Legge deiSimili e Legge di Hering.
Non si pensi però che il metodo omeopatico consista nella semplice applicazione di queste due leggi. Nella realtà, per arrivarealla scelta del rimedio omeopatico per un determinato paziente sono necessarie anche una serie di modelli e di regole, procedurebasate sull’esperienza e notevole abilità. Se fosse sufficiente una semplice applicazione meccanica delle due leggi principali,non sarebbe affatto complicato stabilire il rimedio esatto. Ma L’omeopatia non si fonda su un pensiero analitico-causale,bensì su un pensiero di tipo sintetico o sistemico.
La conoscenza di alcuni principi elementari dell’approccio sistemico è essenziale nell’agevolare la comprensione della praticaomeopatica e nel renderla molto più trasparente. Il fatto che occorrano informazioni relative al livello organizzativo più alto diun organismo per riuscire a comprendere cosa non sta funzionando (parliamo nell’ipotesi di malattia) è assolutamente logico,se considerato nell’ottica del pensiero sistemico. Infatti, dal momento che gli organismi viventi sono organizzati come unità,il livello più alto del sistema-organismo conterrà le informazioni più dettagliate in merito alla sua organizzazione .
Il progetto di un edificio contiene informazioni in quantità di gran lunga superiore ai singoli mattoni o al cemento. Il fatto èche senza il progetto non potrebbe esistere l’edificio. Analogamente, nell’ottica omeopatica i sintomi mentali sonoestremamente importanti, poiché senza la mente l’essere umano non esisterebbe.
Se riusciamo a definire i tratti che caratterizzano un organismo come vivente e, in seguito, le manifestazioni dei disturbi dellaforza vitale, avremo identificato i sintomi che ci potranno guidare nella scelta del rimedio omeopatico. Un cadavere non puòessere freddoloso, nonostante sia più freddo di un individuo in vita, e non può tossire, anche se morto di polmonite. Lecaratteristiche della materia, su cui si fondano le categorie della patologia cellulare, dal punto di vista sistemico risultanoessere molto meno rilevanti per la descrizione delle malattie rispetto alle caratteristiche della vita, così come vengono studiateed utilizzate nella diagnostica omeopatica.
Von Bertalanffy, il fondatore del pensiero sistemico si è posto la seguente domanda di fondo: “Che differenza c’è esattamentetra un organismo vivente, uno morto e uno malato?” L’Omeopatia è impegnata in questa direzione.
Fernand Debats is medical doctor, homeopath, acupuncturer and specialist in nutritional sciences. From 1981 activities inhomeopathic education for medical doctors in the SHO, the Foundation for homeopathic education for medical professionals:contributed to the design of the modular training program in cooperation with the Educational department of the UtrechtUniversity. In 1990, he published Wat zijn de klachten?, an explanation of the homeopathic method and its epistemologicalfoundationSECOND SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE Dr. Andrea Signorini*, Dr. Giuseppe Andrioli, Dr.Paolo Bellavite*** Coordinator of Scientific committee of F.I.A.M.O.
**Department of Morphological Biomedical Sciences – VeronaItaly Biological homeostasis could be seen as a “ controlled disequilibrium” capable to rule various cellular tissues and organismfunctions. Some cellular behavior after strong or week stimulation have been studied in the last years and give new prospectsof interpret the complex patterns of responses the cells use to maintain homeostasis during different environmentalconditions. Change of cellular sensitiveness to prolonged stimulus, homologous or heterologous, are different in consequenceof change of receptor density and/or activation. This may influence the change from acute to chronic stadium of disease,possibly during chronicization the phase shift alters the intercellular homeostatic systems, with a lost of biologicalcommunication. On the basis of these evidences our model could be thought as a “Reactivation of stressed biologicalcommunication” in which homeopathic remedies serve as resonant regulators of the dynamic cellular sensitiveness. Startingfrom this model we put forward hypothesis that not only could explain the operative level of the similia principle, but evenpermit to have a theoretical but founded explanation of some homeopathic phenomena, like “homeopathic aggravation” andthe “return of old symptoms”. At last we can try to enlighten some ancient homeopathic assertion as “medicinal artificialdisease-manifestation” and drug “primary and secondary action” with all their importance for the homeopathic drug proving.
Basi teoriche ed evidenze sperimentali di un modello fisiopatologico basato sulla riattivazione della riattivazione omeostatica In Biologia, si può considerare l’omeostasi come uno stato di stato di “disequilibrio controllato” in grado di regolare variefunzioni a livello cellulare, tissutale e di organismo. Durante gli ultimi anni sono stati studiati alcuni comportamenti cellularia seguito di stimolazioni di differente intensità: ne sono scaturite nuove prospettive di interpretazione dei complessimeccanismi di risposta utilizzati dalle cellule per il mantenimento dell’omeostasi al variare delle condizioni al contorno. Levariazioni della sensibilità cellulare rispetto ad uno stimolo prolungato, di carattere omologo o eterologo, avvengono infunzione della variazione della densità e/o dello stato di attivazione dei recettori. Questo fenomeno può avere influenza sulpassaggio dallo stadio acuto a quello cronico di una malattia e, probabilmente, il cambiamento di fase durante lacronicizzazione si rende responsabile dell’alterazione dei sistemi omeostatici intracellulari, con una conseguente perdita dicomunicazione biologica. Sulla base di questi dati, il nostro modello può letto come la “riattivazione della comunicazioneomeostatica” e in quest’ottica i rimedi omeopatici funzionano come regolatori risonanti della sensibilità cellulare dinamica.
A partire da questo modello, possiamo formulare ipotesi in grado certamente di spiegare il principio dei simili, ma soprattuttodi consentire interpretazioni teoriche e fondate di alcuni fenomeni che occorrono nella pratica omeopatica, quali l'aggravamentoomeopatico e il ritorno dei sintomi. Infine, possiamo cercare di chiarire alcune affermazioni classiche della MedicinaOmeopatica, ad esempio quelle riguardanti le manifestazioni patologiche indotte dal farmaco, gli effetti primari e secondari diuna sostanza e tutte le implicazioni che ne derivano per il proving omeopatico.
HOMEOPATHIC MEDICAL SCIENCE:THE THIRD MILLENNIUM’S EPISTEMOLOGIC CHALLENGE Dr. Carmelo Musco, MDItalian Society of Homeopathic Medicine - CataniaItaly It is necessary to acknowledge three fundamental merits to Homeopathic Medicine. These are to be related to the biologicprocess of Homeostasis which identify with the same vital process:1. it has been first medicine to discover it, in Modern time2. it has been first medicine that has succeeded in systematizing it for therapeutic purposes3. it’s the only medicine that may boast such systematizingTo these merits that concern strictly medical sphere, must be added others that concern the area of Gnoseology andEpistemology:1.
homeopathic therapy may control biological complex at the its highest degree. The control of the biopathological condition may be achieve without the necessity to bind itself in rational interpretative processes, succeeding, for the firsttime in the history of science, in outlining and employing an “experimental non-interpretative” method.
2. for the above method Homeopathic Medicine presents itself such as a New Science, with exclusive medical-biologicapplication, that stand, operationally, between purely descriptive science and interpretative explanatory science. Moreprecisely, Homeopathic Medicine is a New Medical Experimental Science.
LA SCIENZA MEDICA OMEOPATICA: LA SFIDA EPISTEMOLOGICA DEL III° MILLENNIO.
Alla Medicina Omeopatica vanno riconosciuti tre meriti fondamentali in rapporto al processo biologico dell’Omeostasi ches’identifica con il processo vitale stesso: è stata la prima Medicina in epoca Moderna ad averlo scoperto è stata la prima Medicina che in epoca Moderna è riuscita a sistematizzarlo per finalità terapeutiche è tuttora l’unica Medicina che può vantare una tale sistematizzazione A questi tre meriti che interessano l’ambito strettamente Medico se ne devono aggiungere altri che riguardano il campo dellaGnoseologia e della Epistemologia: riesce a pervenire a soluzioni di controllo (terapia omeopatica) di fenomeni naturali a massima complessità (stati bio- patologici) senza la necessità di dovere impegnarsi nei confronti di questi ultimi in processi razionali di carattereinterpretativo, riuscendo per la prima volta nella storia della scienza a delineare ed utilizzare un metodo di conoscenza“sperimentale non-interpretativo” rigoroso.
per via del metodo di cui sopra, la Medicina Omeopatica si presenta come una Nuova Scienza, con esclusiva applicazione medico-biologica, che si pone, operativamente, tra le scienze puramente descrittive, da una parte, e le scienzeesplicativo-interpretative, dall'altra. Più esattamente la Medicna Omeopatica è una Nuova Scienza Medica Sperimentale.
Carmelo Musco is medical doctor and homeopath. He is President and professor at L.U.S.O.C. (Free University forHomeopathic Studies in Catania) . Member of Epistemological Committee of Italian Society of Homeopathic Medicine and“J.T.Kent” International Homeopathic Institute of Buenos Aires. Author of various publication and books on homeopathicsubjects. like : Introduzione all’Omeopatia di Hahnemann ovvero trattato sulla forza vitale (Roma, 1996)SECOND SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE HOMEOPATHY, ARISTOTLE AND THE FUTURE SCIENCE Dr. Pietr Michel ConstantLeidenThe Netherlands The future comes from the past.
As a consequence, we have to deeply know the past in order to approach the future.
No homeopathic theory, in the present scientific scene, can explain the three homeopathic laws. This lack is due to thestructural limits of modern Physics and Philosophy. The Homeopathic Medicine needs to find by itself its own fundamentalprinciples, by rediscovering Aristotle.
Without understanding Aristotle, it is impossible to understand neither the homeopathic theory nor the future of Science.
Understanding the unity of Medicine means that we will not try to dissolve the homeopathic science in the clinical scienceany more. This unity exists since the man is ONE , one substance. The various medical disciplines are just focuses of thatsubstance Pietr Michel Constant is philosopher and homeopathic doctor This new rationality is a new approach to study the complex phenomenawhich are trying to break away from mechanistic Cartesian methods, prevalent in the last few centuries of Western society.
This old rationality tends to simplify, is based on analysis, the separation of facts and has led to a fragmentized knowledge ofreality that has become establishedin the training of specialists. The new rationality, on the other hand, is complex in its approach to the complex realities ofthe human being, of society, and of nature. The new rationality breaks away from the model of Descartes-Newton-Laplace andproposes Bohr-Piaget-Prigogine`s model to which scientists of indubitable prestige such as Jacob, Edelman, Morin, Simonadhere.
In present day science, those who have started to break away from Cartesian logic are mainly the quantum physicists Bohr and Heisenberg. This revolution is influencing the other sciences in such a way that it is impossible, in the light oftheir theories, to go on nowadays with a determinist approach.
Conventional medicine is based on the analysis, on the separation of facts and phenomena that in reality make up a whole, acomplex dynamic unit , unique and not repeatable as is the human being. In agreement with the fragmentation of itsapproach, it divides the study of the patient into specialties. Medicine has also to make, as other sciences, a break from oldmethods and apply a reticular and integrating approach. Human beings are multidimensional entities; there is no other morecomplex reality. To go into this complexity we need complex transdisciplinary methods, leaving aside the old medicine whichinsists on fitting this complexity into its mechanistic schemes in a reductionist way.
Homeopathy because of its integrating, unitary approach fulfills the criteria to be the new medicine of this new rationality.
Isabel Segura is medical doctor and homeopath. She studied Homeopathic Medicine at Colegio de Médicos in Sevilla andHomeopatía de Mexico. She is professor of Human Anatomy and Histology and has been working at Department ofAnatomic Pathology of “Virgen del Rocio” Hospital in Sevilla, since 1974. She published a very large number of scientificarticles and contributions. Founder member of Spanish Histochemical Society and member of Histochemical Society ofU.S.A. She is carrying on various research projects , mostly on histology. RELATION BETWEEN NATURAL LANGUAGE AND TECHNICAL LANGUAGE IN SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES Prof. Massimo BaldiniSemiologyL.U.I.S.S. Faculty of Political Sience – RomeItaly We can consider natural or common language as the “father” of technical-specialized languages. These latter –for examplesthose concerning empirical sciences or mathematics- borrow words and expressions from natural language.
Obviously, such words and expressions, while changing context, take new and original meanings. As a consequence, there isthe need of new linguistic and pragmatic rules. That is to say, scientists borrow from natural languages words such as “force”,“mass”, “speed”, “set”, “function” and then redefine them in order to avoid misunderstanding.
So specialized, in particular technical-scientific, languages reject polysemous words. Scientists like words with precisemeaning, exact definition and favor the denotative function of the language. Otherwise, polysemous words –with evocativeand enchanting power, ambiguous and often elliptical aura- are usual in common language.
Specialized language get their fundamental structure from ordinary language. On this structure, new words drawn from Greekand Latin or neologism are inserted.
“Physicians and naturalists prefer to coin new words from Greek and Latin; physicists take words from common language andgive them a conventional meaning”, wrote in 1946 the physicist Enrico Persico,Among specialized language, in the last years the technical-scientific ones have been increasing out of all proportions. At themoment, two thirds of words of Italian language belong to specialized language: medicine and biology only are the 27 percent of these two thirds.
IL RAPPORTO TRA LINGUAGGIO NATURALE E LINGUAGGIO TECNICONELLE DISCIPLINE SCIENTIFICHE Il linguaggio naturale o ordinario è il “padre” dei vari linguaggi tecnico-specialistici. Questi ultimi, si pensi ad esempio a quelli delle scienze empiriche o della matematica – nascono contraendo prestiti linguistici nei confronti dellinguaggio ordinario, in breve prendendo da quello termini ed espressioni.
Ovviamente, tali termini ed espressioni mutando universo di discorso, vengono ad assumere significati originali nuovi e pertanto necessitano di nuove regole d’uso. In altre parole gli scienziati assumendo dal linguaggi ordinario terminiquali “forza”, “massa”, “velocità”, “insieme”, “funzione”, li ridefiniscono, evitando in questo modo ogni possibilità difraintendimento.
I linguaggi specialistici, dunque, e quelli tecnico-scientifici in particolare, sono caratterizzati dal rifiuto di parole polisemiche. Gli scienziati amano solo le parole dai significati precisi, dalle definizioni esatte e tendono a privilegiare lafunzione denotativa della lingua. Nel linguaggio ordinario, di contro, ci si imbatte solitamente in parole polisemiche, cheposseggono un potere evocativo e fascinatorio, un forte alone di ambiguità e, talora, di ellitticità.
I linguaggi specialistici ricavano dunque la loro struttura portante dal linguaggio ordinario. Su questa innestano via via nuovi termini traendoli dal greco o dal latino, oppure coniando neologismi. “I medici e i naturalisti – scriveva nel 1946 ilfisico Enrico Persico – preferiscono coniare parole nuove dal greco e dal latino; i fisici assumono le parole dal linguaggiocomune e le convenzionalizzano”.
Tra i linguaggi specialistici negli ultimi tempi quelli tecnico-scientifici sono cresciuti a dismisura. Ormai le parole presenti nell’italiano appartengono per due terzi a linguaggi speciali, e di questi due terzi la medicina e la biologia occupano dasole il 27 per cento.
Massimo Baldini is professor of Semiology at Faculty of Political Sciences of L.U.I.S.S., in Rome, ItalyTHIRD SESSION: SCIENCE AND METHOD INFINETLY BIG AND INFINETLY SMALL:TWO FRONTIERS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH TODAY Prof. Giancarlo BarbarinoDepartment of Physics – University of NaplesNuclear Physics National InstitueItaly In the present contribution, the author aims at explaining, from a phenomenological and easy perspective, how the physicalprocesses that we observe everyday are regulated.
In particular, the fundamental natural laws which regulate the physical processes -both in the infinitely small and in theinfinitely big- will be described in an universal way and through a coherent formulation.
Furthermore, it will be shown how natural symmetries make similar the actual known groups of elementary particles, fromthe point of view of their hierarchy.
INFINITAMENTE GRANDE E INFINITAMENTE PICCOLO: DUE FRONTIERE DELLA RICERCA SCIENTIFICAOGGI L’argomento che presenterò mostrerà in maniera fenomenologica e semplice come sono regolati i processi fisici che noiosserviamo quotidianamente. In particolare verranno descritte in modo universale ed in formulazione unitaria le leggifondamentali della natura che regolano i processi fisici sia nell’infinitamente piccolo che nell’infinitamente grande.
Sarà inoltre dimostrato come le simmetrie in natura rendano gerarchicamente simili le famiglie delle particelle elementari chefino ad oggi conosciamo.
Da qui si capirà come tutto ciò potrà avere delle conseguenze sull’evoluzione dell’universo.
Giancarlo Barbarino is full professor of Physics at University of Naples and at Nuclear Physics NationalInstitute, department of Naples. Together with Carlo Rubia he is the supervisor of an internationalresearch project on neutrinos oscillations at national laboratory of Gran Sasso. THERMODYNAMICS OF EXTREMELY DILUTED SOLUTIONSOF THE HOMEOPATHIC PHARMACOPOEIA Prof. Vittorio Elia, Dr. Marcella NiccoliDepartment of Chemistry“Federico II” University – NaplesItaly An extensive thermodynamic study has been carried out on aqueous solutions obtained through successive dilutions and succussions of 1% in weight solutions up to extremely diluted solutions (less than 1.10-5 mol kg-1), obtained via several1 : 100 successive dilution processes. The interaction of acids or bases with the extremely diluted solutions has been studiedcalorimetrically at 25°C. Measurements have been performed of the heats of mixing of acid or basic solutions with bidistilledwater or with the extremely diluted solutions. Despite the extreme dilution of the solutions, an exothermic excess heat ofmixing has been found, in about the totality of the cases, with respect to the corresponding heat of mixing with the untreatedsolvent. Here we show that successive dilutions and succussions may permanently alter the physical-chemical properties ofthe solvent water. The nature of the phenomena here described still remains unexplained, but significant experimental resultsare obtained.
TERMODINAMICA DELLE SOLUZIONI ESTREMAMENTE DILUITE DELLA FARMACOPEA OMEOPATICA E’ stato compiuto un ampio studio termodinamico su soluzioni acquose ottenute attraverso successive diluizioni esuccussioni. Si è partiti da soluzioni all’ 1% in peso successivamente diluite con rapporto 1:100 fino a raggiungere diluizioniestreme (meno di 1x10 –5 mol kg-1).
Sono state studiate calorimetricamente a 25° le interazioni di acidi o basi con soluzioni estremamente diluite. Si è misurato ilcalore della miscelazione di soluzioni acide o basiche con acqua bidistillata o con soluzioni estremamente diluite.
Nonostante l’estrema diluizione delle soluzioni, si è notato, pressoché nella totalità dei casi, che il calore della miscelazione èeccessivo rispetto alle corrispondenti prove effettuate con solvente puro, non trattato.
Col nostro lavoro dimostriamo che diluizioni e succussioni successive possono alterare in maniera permanente le proprietàchimico-fisiche del solvente acqua. La natura del fenomeno descritto resta senza spiegazione, ma si sono comunque ottenutisignificativi risultati sperimentali.
Vittorio Elia teaches Physical Chemistry at “Federico II” University, in Naples, Italy. He is author ofmore than 100 scientific publications on thermodynamics of aqueous solutions of model-molecules withbiologic interest. In the last five years he has begun studying chemical and physical properties of aqueoussolutions of the homeopathic pharmacopoeia. On this subject he published two scientific works.
THIRD SESSION: SCIENCE AND METHOD BIOPHYSICS OF HOMEOPATHIC DRUGS:THE PARTICULAR CASE OF NOSODES Dr.sc.pharm. Joan van DammeUNDA LaboratoriesBelgium The pharmaceutical (according to the Directive CE 92/73) and pharmacological (according to the HPUS ’79) definitions ofhomeopathic drug are briefly discussed and the need for a scientific definition is demonstrated.
Based on a simplified, comprehensive, biophysical model and in agreement with the basic ideas of some prominent theories asclustering, flickering clusters, non local electrodynamic fields and coherent states, a scientific definition of homeopathic drugis proposed.
The biophysical model explains not only the mechanism of information storage in homeopathic dilutions but also thefundamental laws of homeopathy, in particular the law of identity (“ aequalia aequalibus currentur ”) and, by extension, thelaw of similarity (“ similia similibus currentur ”).
The interest of the simplified biophysical model concerns mainly the good medical use of nosodes (toxodes, allersodes,isodes). Also G.M.P. rules for the preparation of nosodes from diseased substances as well as pathogenic energy sources (X-ray, micro-waves) are outlined and discussed.
In fact, there is some evidence that homeopathic nosodes will be of particular interest for public health. For the comingmillenium and in relation to pollution problems and iatrogenic diseases as e.g. vaccinosis, conventional as well asunconventional medicine have to reconsider the causes of illness.
Jhoan van Damme is doctor of pharmaceutical sciences. Member of several international scientificassociations. Co-author of Compendium Homéopathique (1983) and teacher of homeopathic doctrine.
Since 1984, she has been the pharmaceutical director of UNDA s.a.
THIRD SESSION: SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE AIDS – THE WAY TOWARDS A NEW FORM OF SCIENCE? Dr. Stephan Lanka,PhD – Dipl. Päd . Karl Krafeld "HIV and AIDS" represent the tip of the iceberg of a global science no longer tied to reality. A science which remains stuckin a virtual subculture. On the 23rd April 1984, the US government declared they had discovered a virus which has still notbeen proved scientifically today.
Even intelligent people in Science, Politics and the Media knowingly participate in this global game which totally disregardshumanity. The whole world subjects itself to the politically invented virtuality of AIDS camouflaged with scientificterminology.
In relation with the humanitarian association "Science, Medicine and Human Rights e.V." in the last years definite proof hasbeen collected showing that Science and the German State have acted against their better knowledge.
The research group "Regimed" connected to this association has exposed the virtuality and the lies surrounding the science inAIDS and have presented true scientific explanation regarding the clinical phenomenon of AIDS.
The closely associated citizens movement "MuM" is actively working in Germany against the government-sanctioned crimeof AIDS. Since October 1999 several Germans started to hand in report in different police stations accusing leading healthofficials in Germany of collusion in acts of homicide. For the first time since the French and American revolutions citizensare demanding that the "State" goes against the "State".

Source: http://www.luimo.it/luimoing/pdf/abstract.pdf

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DEMENTIAN KÄYTÖSOIREITA - psykoosioireita- unihäiriöitä- ruokahalun muutoksia- impulsiivisuus, ärtyisyys, aggressiivisuus- vähentynyt energia, välinpitämättömyys- itsekeskeisyys- sosiaalinen eristäytyminen- seksuaalitoimintojen muutokset- varastelu, piilottelu- pukeminen, riisuminen- vaeltelu, huutelu• merkki häiriintyneestä havaintokyvystä ja• peruspersoonallisuudella on m

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TODA EMBARCACIÓN DE RECREO ESLORA MAYOR DE 11 METROS (ARTÍCULO 23 DEL REGLAMENTO DE LA MARINA DEPORTIVA NACIONAL Y OTROS) (ARTÍCULO 23 DEL REGLAMENTO DE LA MARINA DEPORTIVA NACIONAL Y OTROS) a) Un número de chalecos salvavidas o cojines boyantes, igual al número de personas a) Tres (3) extintores de incendio de 4 libras de CO2 ó de polvo seco, colocados de asignadas a la embarc

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