Microsoft word - clinical studies of alkaline water
CLINICAL STUDIES OF ALKALINE Reduced water Electrolyzed water Alkaline /Acid water Microwater
There have been many studies by Doctors in
Japanese Hospitals on the Benefits of using Alkaline
Water. Below are a few now translated into English
Fluid replacement promotes optimal physical performance. Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen & protects
The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects of reduced
Antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella species on
Treatment of Escherichia coli inoculated alfalfa sprouts with
Inactivation of E. coli & Listeria on plastic kitchen cutting
boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water.
The bactericidal effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on
Effect of electrolyzed water on wound healing. Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water on excised burn-wounds in
Decomposition of ethylene, a flower-senescence hormone, with
Use of Ionized water in hypochlorhydria, achlorhydria,
Use of Ionized water for gynecological conditions Clinical Improvements obtained from the uptake of Ionized
Alkaline ionized water for abdominal complaints: Placebo
Physiological effects of alkaline ionized water: intestinal
Effects of calcium alkaline ionized water on formation and
Reduced Water for Prevention of Disease Use of Ionized water in heart disease and toxins. Use of Ionized water in skin disease. Use of Ionized water in allergies. Use of Ionized water in diebetes treatment
Use of Ionized water in treating Acidosis Environmental electroshemistry of water
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not meant to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Article on need for adequate water when exercising. Med Sci Sports Exercise 1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii.
Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, SenayLC Jr, Sherman WM.
It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine thatadequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore,
promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance ofindividuals participating in regular physical activity. This positionstatement is based on a comprehensive review and interpretation ofscientific literature concerning the influence of fluid replacement onexercise performance and the risk of thermal injury associated withdehydration and hyperthermia.
Based on available evidence, the American College of Sports Medicinemakes the following general recommendations on the amount andcomposition of fluid that should be ingested in preparation for, during,and after exercise or athletic competition:1) It is recommended that individuals consume a nutritionally balanced
diet and drink adequate fluids during the 24-hr period before an event,especially during the period that includes the meal prior to exercise, topromote proper hydration before exercise or competition. 2) It is recommended that individuals drink about 500 ml (about 17ounces) of fluid about 2 hours before exercise to promote adequatehydration and allow time for excretion of excess ingested water.
3) During exercise, athletes should start drinking early and at regularintervals in an attempt to consume fluids at a rate sufficient to replaceall the water lost through sweating (i.e., body weight loss), orconsume the maximal amount that can be tolerated. 4) It is recommended that ingested fluids be cooler than ambienttemperature (between 15 degrees and 22 degrees C or 59 degreesand 72 degrees F) and flavored to enhance palatability and promote
fluid replacement. Fluids should be readily available and served incontainers that allow adequate volumes to be ingested with ease andwith minimal interruption of exercise. 5) Addition of proper amounts of carbohydrates and/or electrolytes to
a fluid replacement solution is recommended for exercise events ofduration greater than 1 hour since it does not significantly impairwater delivery to the body and may enhance performance. Duringexercise lasting less than 1 hour, there is little evidence of
physiological or physical performance differences between consuminga carbohydrate-electrolyte drink and plain water. 6) During intense exercise lasting longer than 1 hr, it is recommendedthat carbohydrates be ingested at a rate of 30-60 g.h(-1) to maintainoxidation of carbohydrates and delay fatigue. This rate of carbohydrateintake can be achieved without compromising fluid delivery by drinking
600-1200 ml.hr(-1) of solutions containing 4%-8% carbohydrates(g.100 ml(-1)). The carbohydrates can be sugars (glucose or sucrose)or starch (e.g., maltodextrin). 7) Inclusion of sodium (0.5-0.7 g.1(-1) of water) in the rehydrationsolution ingested during exercise lasting longer than 1 hr isrecommended since it may be advantageous in enhancing palatability,
promoting fluid retention, and possibly preventing hyponatremia incertain individuals who drink excessive quantities of fluid. There is littlephysiological basis for the presence of sodium in an oral rehydrationsolution for enhancing intestinal water absorption as long as sodium issufficiently available from the previous meal.
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not meant to cure or
treat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Use of Alkaline water with low ORP to reduce Radical Damage Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 May 8;234(1):269-74. Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y.
Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology,Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be 'active hydrogen'. 'Active hydrogen' can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low
dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen(DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Stronglyelectrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin andtannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH
7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is
stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even afterneutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation withsonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closedautoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed
autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficientlyadsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gasexhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, asdoes reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These resultssuggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to thedissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic
hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH.
PMID: 9169001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as various
Internet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not meant to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Effect of Alkaline Water on Free Radicals Biophys Chem. 2004 Jan 1;107(1):71-82.
Hanaoka K, Sun D, Lawrence R, Kamitani Y, Fernandes G.
Bio-REDOX Laboratory Inc. 1187-4, Oaza-Ueda, Ueda-shi, Nagano-ken 386-0001, Japan. email@example.com
We reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid (AsA) in a previous paper. We also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of
2 mM NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself. Wereasoned that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due tothe increase of the ionic product of water as solvent. The ionic productof water (pKw) was estimated by measurements of pH and by aneutralization titration method. As an indicator of oxidative damage,Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS) mediated DNA strand breaks weremeasured by the conversion of supercoiled phiX-174 RF I double-
strand DNA to open and linear forms. Reduced water had a tendency
to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by reactive oxygenspecies produced by H2O2/Cu (II) and HQ/Cu (II) systems. Theenhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can beexplained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not meant to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with various antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella species on poultry. Use of Acid Water to reduce Foodborne Pathogens Poult Sci. 2002 Oct;81(10):1598-605.
Fabrizio KA, Sharma RR, Demirci A, Cutter CN.
Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA.
Foodborne pathogens in cell suspensions or attached to surfaces can
be reduced by electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water; however, the use ofEO water against pathogens associated with poultry has not beenexplored. In this study, acidic EO water [EO-A; pH 2.6, chlorine (CL) 20 to 50ppm, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 1,150 mV], basic EOwater (EO-B; pH 11.6, ORP of -795 mV), CL, ozonated water (OZ),acetic acid (AA), or trisodium phosphate (TSP) was applied to broiler
carcasses inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) andsubmerged (4 C, 45 min), spray-washed (85 psi, 25 C, 15 s), orsubjected to multiple interventions (EO-B spray, immersed in EO-A;AA or TSP spray, immersed in CL). Remaining bacterial populationswere determined and compared at Day 0 and 7 of aerobic, refrigerated
storage. At Day 0, submersion in TSP and AA reduced ST 1.41 log10,whereas EO-A water reduced ST approximately 0.86 log10. After 7 dof storage, EO-A water, OZ, TSP, and AA reduced ST, with detectiononly after selective enrichment. Spray-washing treatments with any ofthe compounds did not reduce ST at Day 0. After 7 d of storage, TSP,AA, and EO-A water reduced ST 2.17, 2.31, and 1.06 log10,
respectively. ST was reduced 2.11 log10 immediately following themultiple interventions, 3.81 log10 after 7 d of storage. Althougheffective against ST, TSP and AA are costly and adversely affect theenvironment. This study demonstrates that EO water can reduce ST on poultrysurfaces following extended refrigerated storage.
PMID: 12412930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not meant to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Treatment of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water. Acid Water and Food Sanitation Int J Food Microbiol. 2003 Sep 15;86(3):231-7.
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Electrolyzed oxidizing water is a relatively new concept that has been
utilized in agriculture, livestock management, medical sterilization, andfood sanitation. Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water generated by passing sodiumchloride solution through an EO water generator was used to treatalfalfa seeds and sprouts inoculated with a five-strain cocktail ofnalidixic acid resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7. EO water had a pH of
2.6, an oxidation-reduction potential of 1150 mV and about 50 ppmfree chlorine. The percentage reduction in bacterial load wasdetermined for reaction times of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min. Mechanical agitation was done while treating the seeds at differenttime intervals to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Since E.
coli O157:H7 was released due to soaking during treatment, the initialcounts on seeds and sprouts were determined by soaking thecontaminated seeds/sprouts in 0.1% peptone water for a periodequivalent to treatment time. The samples were then pummeled in0.1% peptone water and spread plated on tryptic soy agar with 5microg/ml of nalidixic acid (TSAN). Results showed that there werereductions between 38.2% and 97.1% (0.22-1.56 log(10) CFU/g) in
the bacterial load of treated seeds. The reductions for sprouts were between 91.1% and 99.8% (1.05-2.72 log(10) CFU/g). An increase in treatment time increased the percentage reduction of E. coli O157:H7. However, germination of the treated seeds reduced from 92% to 49% as amperage to make EO water and soaking time increased. EO water did not cause any visible damage to
PMID: 12915034 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not meant to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Inactivation of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes on plastic kitchen cutting boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water. Use of Acid Water to clean Plastic Cutting Boards
Venkitanarayanan KS, Ezeike GO, Hung YC, Doyle MP.
Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, USA.
One milliliter of culture containing a five-strain mixture of Escherichiacoli O157:H7 (approximately 10(10) CFU) was inoculated on a 100-
cm2 area marked on unscarred cutting boards. Following inoculation, the boards were air-dried under a laminar flowhood for 1 h, immersed in 2 liters of electrolyzed oxidizing water orsterile deionized water at 23 degrees C or 35 degrees C for 10 or 20min; 45 degrees C for 5 or 10 min; or 55 degrees C for 5 min. Aftereach temperature-time combination, the surviving population of the
pathogen on cutting boards and in soaking water was determined. Soaking of inoculated cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing waterreduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by > or = 5.0 log CFU/100 cm2on cutting boards. However, immersion of cutting boards in deionizedwater decreased the pathogen count only by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/100cm2. Treatment of cutting boards inoculated with Listeria
monocytogenes in electrolyzed oxidizing water at selectedtemperature-time combinations (23 degrees C for 20 min, 35 degreesC for 10 min, and 45 degrees C for 10 min) substantially reduced thepopulations of L. monocytogenes in comparison to the countsrecovered from the boards immersed in deionized water. E. coli
O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were not detected in electrolyzed oxidizing water after soaking treatment, whereas the pathogens survived in the deionized water used for soaking the cutting boards. This study revealed that immersion of kitchen cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water could be used as an effective method for inactivating foodborne pathogens on smooth, plastic cutting boards.
PMID: 10456736 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not meant to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. The bactericidal effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on bacterial strains involved in hospital infections. Acid Water and Hospital Infections
Vorobjeva NV, Vorobjeva LI, Khodjaev EY. Artif Organs. 2004 Jun;28(6):590-2.
Department of Physiology of Microorganisms, Biology Faculty, Moscow State University, LeninHills 1/12, Moscow 119992, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The study is designed to investigate bactericidal actions of electrolyzed
oxidizing water on hospital infections. Ten of the most common opportunistic pathogens are used for thisstudy. Cultures are inoculated in 4.5 mL of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO)water or 4.5 mL of sterile deionized water (control), and incubated for0, 0.5, and 5 min at room temperature. At the exposure time of 30 sthe EO water completely inactivates all of the bacterial strains, with
the exception of vegetative cells and spores of bacilli which need 5 min to be killed. The results indicate that electrolyzed oxidizing water may be a useful disinfectant for hospital infections, but its clinical application has still to be evaluated. PMID: 15153153 [PubMed - in process]
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as various
Internet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure or treat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water and hydrocolloid occlusive dressings on excised burn-wounds in rats. Use of Acid Water on Burns Chin J Traumatol 2003 Aug 1;6(4):234-7.
Department of Thoracic Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Jilin 130031, China. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water
(EOW) and hydrocolloid occlusive dressings in the acceleration ofepithelialization in excised burn-wounds in rats. METHODS: Each of the anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n=28) wassubjected to a third-degree burn that covered approximately 10% ofthe total body surface area. Rats were assigned into four groups:Group I (no irrigation), Group II (irrigation with physiologic saline),
Group III (irrigation with EOW) and Group IV (hydrocolloid occlusivedressing after EOW irrigation). Wounds were observed macroscopicallyuntil complete epithelialization was present, then the epithelializedwounds were examined microscopically. RESULTS: Healing of the burnwounds was the fastest in Group IV treated with hydrocolloid occlusive
dressing together with EOW. Although extensive regenerative epidermis was seen in each Group, the proliferations of lymphocytes and macrophages associated with dense collagen deposition were more extensive in Group II, III and IV than in Group I. These findings were particularly evident in Group III and IV. CONCLUSIONS: Wound Healing may be accelerated by applying a hydrocolloid occlusive dressing on burn surfaces after they are cleaned with electrolyzed oxidating water.
PMID: 12857518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as various Internet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure or treat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Effect of electrolyzed water on wound healing. Acid Water for Burns Artif Organs. 2000 Dec;24(12):984-7.
Yahagi N, Kono M, Kitahara M, Ohmura A, Sumita O, Hashimoto T, Hori K, Ning-Juan C,Woodson P, Kubota S, Murakami A, Takamoto S.
Department of Anesthesiology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Electrolyzed water accelerated the healing of full-thickness cutaneouswounds in rats, but only anode chamber water (acid pH or neutralized)was effective. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), also produced by electrolysis,was ineffective, suggesting that these types of electrolyzed water
enhance wound healing by a mechanism unrelated to the well-knownantibacterial action of HOCl. One possibility is that reactive oxygenspecies, shown to be electron spin resonance spectra present in anodechamber water, might trigger early wound healing through fibroblastmigration and proliferation.
PMID: 11121980 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Decomposition of ethylene, a flower-senescence hormone, with electrolyzed anode water. Acid Water used to extend Flower Life Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003 Apr;67(4):790-6.
Department of Research and Development, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., 2-1 Tsuishikari,Ebetsu, Hokkaido 067-0033, Japan. email@example.com
Electrolyzed anode water (EAW) markedly extended the vase life of cut carnation flowers. Therefore, a flower-senescence hormone involving ethylene decomposition by EAW with potassium chloride as an electrolyte was investigated. Ethylene was added externally to EAW, and the reaction
between ethylen and the available chlorine in EAW was examined.
EAW had a low pH value (2.5), a high concentration of dissolvedoxygen, and extremely high redox potential (19.2 mg/l and 1323 mV,respectively) when available chlorine was at a concentration of about620 microns. The addition of ethylene to EAW led to ethylene
decomposition, and an equimolar amount of ethylene chlorohydrinewith available chlorine was produced. The ethylene chlorohydrineproduction was greatly affected by the pH value (pH 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0were tested), and was faster in an acidic solution. Ethylenechlorohydrine was not produced after ethylene had been added to EAWat pH 2.6 when available chlorine was absent, but was produced after
potassium hypochlorite had been added to such EAW. The effect of thepH value of EAW on the vase life of cut carnations was compatible withthe decomposition rate of ethylene in EAW of the same pH value. These results suggest that the effect of Electrolyzed Anode Water onthe vase life of cut carnations was due to the decomposition ofethylene to ethylene chlorohydrine by chlorine from chlorine
PMID: 12784619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Use of Ionized water in hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria Alkaline Water and Reducing Cholestrol
Prof. Kuninaka Hironage, Head of Kuninaka Hospital
"Too many fats in the diets, which lead to the deposition of cholesterolon the blood vessels, which in turn constrict the blood flow, causemost illnesses such as high blood pressure. In accordance with the theory of Professor Gato of Kyushu Universityon Vitamin K (because vitamin K enables the blood calcium to increase), or the consumption of more antioxidant water, the effectiveness ofthe increase in the calcium in high blood pressure is most significant. With the consumption of alkaline antioxidant water for a period of 2 to 3 months, I have observed the blood pressure slowly drop, due to the water's solvent ability, which dissolves the cholesterol in the blood vessels.
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure or
treat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Use of Ionized water for gynecological conditions
Alkaline Water Use in Illness Recovery
"Ionized alkaline antioxidant water improves body constituents and ensures effective healing to many illnesses. The uses of antioxidant water in gynecological patients have proved to be very effective. The main reason for its effectiveness is that this water can
When given antioxidant water to pre-eclamptic toxemia cases, theresults are most significant. During my long years of servicing the pre-eclamptic toxemia cases, I found that the women with pre-eclamptic
toxemia who consumed antioxidant water tend to deliver healthierbabies with stronger muscles. A survey report carried out on babies inthis group showed intelligence above average."
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Toxin Neutralisation Alkaline Water used to Neutralize Toxins
Prof. Kuwata Keijiroo, Doctor of Medicine
In my opinion, the wonder of antioxidant water is the ability
neutralizes toxins, but it is not a medicine. The difference is that the medicine can only apply to each and individual case, whereas the antioxidant water can be consumed generally and its neutralizing power is something which is very much unexpected. Now, in brief, let me introduce to you a heart disease case and how it was
The patient was a 35 years old male suffering from vascular heartdisease. For 5 years, his sickness deteriorated. He was in the SetagaysGovernment Hospital for treatment.
During those 5 years, he had been in and out of the hospital 5 to 6times. He had undergone high tech examinations such as angiogramby injecting VINYL via the vein into the heart. He consulted and soughttreatment from many good doctors where later he underwent a majorsurgical operation. Upon his discharge from the hospital, he quit hisjob to convalesce. However, each time when his illness relapsed, the
attack seemed to be even more severe.
Last year, in August, his relatives were in despair and expected hewould not live much longer. It so happened at that time that the
victim's relative came across an antioxidant alkaline water processor. His illness responded well and he is now on the road to recovery." In the United States, cardiovascular diseases account for more than one-half of the approximate 2 million deaths occurring each year. It is estimated that optimal conditioning of drinking water could reduce this cardiovascular disease mortality rate by as much as 15 percent. From: Report of the Safe Drinking Water Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, 1977
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Alkaline Water and Eczema
Prof. Tamura Tatsuji, Keifuku Rehabilitation Center
"Eczema is used to describe several varieties of skin conditions, whichhave a number of common features. The exact cause or causes of eczema are not fully understood. Inmany cases, eczema can be attributed to external irritants.
Let me introduce a patient who recovered from skin disease afterconsuming the antioxidant water. This patient suffered 10 years ofeczema and could not be cured effectively even under specialisttreatment. This patient, who is 70 years of age, is the president of avehicle spare parts company. After the war, his lower limbs suffered
acute eczema, which later became chronic. He was repeatedly treatedin a specialist skin hospital.
The left limb responded well to treatment, but not so on the right limb. He suffered severe itchiness, which, when scratched led to bleeding.
During the last 10 years, he was seen and treated by many doctors. When I first examined him, his lower limb around the joints wascovered with vesicles. Weeping occurred owing to serum exuding fromthe vesicles.
I advised him to try consuming antioxidant water. He bought a unit
and consumed the antioxidant water religiously and used the acidicwater to bathe the affected areas. After 2 weeks of treatment thevesicles dried up. The eczema completely cleared without any relapseafter 1½ month."
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Allergies Alkaline Water for Allergy Treatment
Prof. Kuninaka Hironaga, Head of Kuninaka Hospital
"Mr. Yamada, the head of the Police Research Institute, suffered fromsevere allergy. He was treated repeatedly by a skin specialist, but withno success. Then he started consuming antioxidant water. The allergyresponded very well and was soon completely cured. No relapse had
occurred, although he had taken all kinds of food. He was mostgrateful and excited about this treatment.
As for myself, I had also suffered severe allergy. From the time Ibegan to consume antioxidant water, the allergy has not returned. Since then, I started research on the effectiveness of antioxidant
I discovered that most allergies are due to acidification of body condition and is also related to consuming too much meat and sugar. In every allergy case, the patient's antioxidant minerals are excessively low which in turn lower the body resistance significantly.
The body becomes overly sensitive and develops allergy easily. Tostabilize the sensitivity, calcium solution in injected into the vein. Therefore, it is clear that antioxidant water, with ionic calcium, canhelp alleviate allergy.
The ionic calcium not only enhances the heart, urination, and
neutralization of toxins but controls acidity. It also enhances thedigestive system and liver function. This will promote natural healingpower and hence increase its resistance to allergy. In some specialcases of illness, which do not respond to drugs, they are found torespond well to antioxidant water."
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Digestive Problems Alkaline Water and Stomach Disease
Prof. Kogure Keizou, Kogure Clinic of Juntendo Hospital
"The stomach is readily upset both by diseases affecting the stomachand by other general illnesses. In addition, any nervous tension oranxiety frequently causes gastric upset or vague symptoms.
The important role of antioxidant water in our stomach is to neutralize
the secretion and strengthen it's functions. Usually, after consumingthe antioxidant water for 1 to 3 minutes, the gastric juice increase to1½ times. For those suffering from hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria (low in gastric juice ) the presence of antioxidant water will stimulatethe stomach cells to secrete more gastric juice. This in turn enhancesdigestion and absorption of minerals.
However, on the other hand, those with hyperchlorhydria ( high ingastric juice ), the antioxidant water neutralizes the excessive gastric
juice. Hence, it does not create any adverse reaction.
According to the medical lecturer from Maeba University, the pH of thegastric secretion will still remain normal when antioxidant water is
consumed. This proves that the ability of the antioxidant water is ableto neutralize as well as to stimulate the secretion."
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Diabetes Alkaline Water for Diabetes
Prof. Kuwata Keijiroo, Doctor of Medicine
"When I was serving in the Fire Insurance Association, I used toexamine many diabetic patients. Besides treating them with drugs, I
provided them with antioxidant water. After drinking antioxidant waterfor one month, 15 diabetic patients were selected and sent to TokyoUniversity for further test and observations.
Initially, the more serious patients were a bit apprehensive about thetreatment. When the antioxidant water was consumed for some time,the sugar in the blood and urine ranged from a ratio of 300 mg/l to 2
mg / dc. There was a time where the patients had undergone 5 to 6blood tests a day and detected to be within normal range. Results alsoshowed that even 1 ½ hour after meals, the blood sugar and urineratio was 100 mg/dc: 0 mg/dc . The sugar in the urine had completelydisappeared.
NOTE:More Americans than ever before are suffering from diabetes, with thenumber of new cases averaging almost 800,000 each year. Thedisease has steadily increased in the United States since 1980, and in
1998, 16 million Americans were diagnosed with diabetes (10.3 milliondiagnosed; 5.4 million undiagnosed). Diabetes is the seventh leadingcause of death in the United States, and more than 193,000 died fromthe disease and its related complication in 1996.
The greatest increase, 76 percent, occurred in people age 30 to 30. From: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, October 13,2000 Fact Sheet.
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Use of Ionized water in treating Acidosis Alkaline Water and Obesity
Prof. Hatori Tasutaroo, Head of Akajiuiji Blood Centre, Yokohama Hospital, Faitama District
"Due to a higher standard of living, our eating habits have changed. We consume too much proteins, fats and sugar. The excess fats andcarbohydrates are in the body as fats. In the present lifestyles,Americans are more extravagant on food compared to the Japanese.
Due to this excessive intake obesity is a significant problem. Normally,one out of five males and one out of four females is obese.
The degree of "burn-out" in food intake largely depends on the amounton intake of vitamins and minerals. When excessive intake of proteins,carbohydrates and fats occurs, the requirement for vitamins and
minerals increases. However, there is not much research carried outpertaining to the importance of vitamins and minerals.
Nowadays, many people suffer from acidification that leads todiabetes, heart diseases, cancer, liver and kidney diseases. If our foodintake can be completely burned off, then there is no deposition of
fats. Obviously, there will be no acidification problem and hence thereshould not be any sign of obesity.
The antioxidant water contains an abundance of ionic calcium. Thisionic calcium (and other alkalizing minerals) help in the "burn-off"
process. By drinking antioxidant water, it provides sufficient mineralsfor our body.
Hence, antioxidant water is a savior for those suffering from obesity and many adult diseases, providing assistance in enhancing good health."
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure or
treat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. REDUCED WATER FOR PREVENTION OF DISEASES Health Benefits of Alkaline Water
Dr.Sanetaka ShirahataGraduate school of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University,
6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.
It has long been established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause
many types of damage to biomolecules and cellular structures, that, inturn result in the development of a variety of pathologic states such asdiabetes, cancer and aging. Reduced water is defined as anti-oxidative water produced byreduction of water. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) has beendemonstrated to be hydrogen-rich water and can scavenge ROS in
vitro (Shirahata et al., 1997). The reduction of proton in water toactive hydrogen (atomic hydrogen, hydrogen radical) that canscavenge ROS is very easily caused by a weak current, compared tooxidation of hydroxyl ion to oxygen molecule. Activation of water by
magnetic field, collision, minerals etc. will also produce reduced watercontaining active hydrogen and/or hydrogen molecule. Several naturalwaters such as Hita Tenryosui water drawn from deep underground inHita city in Japan, Nordenau water in Germany and Tlacote water inMexico are known to alleviate various diseases. We have developed asensitive method by which we can detect active hydrogen existing in
reduced water, and have demonstrated that not only ERW but alsonatural reduced waters described above contain active hydrogen andscavenge ROS in cultured cells. ROS is known to cause reduction ofglucose uptake by inhibiting the insulin-signaling pathway in culturedcells. Reduced water scavenged intracellular ROS and stimulatedglucose uptake in the presence or absence of insulin in both rat L6
skeletal muscle cells and mouse 3T3/L1 adipocytes. This insulin-likeactivity of reduced water was inhibited by wortmannin that is specificinhibitor of PI-3 kinase, a key molecule in insulin signaling pathways. Reduced water protected insulin-responsive cells from sugar toxicityand improved the damaged sugar tolerance of type 2 diabetes modelmice, suggesting that reduced water may improve insulin-independent
diabetes mellitus. Cancer cells are generally exposed to high oxidative stress. Reducedwater cause impaired tumor phenotypes of human cancer cells, suchas reduced growth rate, morphological changes, reduced colonyformation ability in soft agar, passage number-dependent telomere
shortening, reduced binding abilities of telomere binding proteins andsuppressed metastasis. Reduced water suppressed the growth of cancer cells transplanted intomice, demonstrating their anti-cancer effects in vivo. Reduced water isapplicable to not only medicine but also food industries, agriculture,and manufacturing industries. Shirahata, S. et al.: Electrolyzed reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protectsDNA from oxidative damage. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 234, 269174, 1997.
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. CLINICAL Impovements Obtained From The Intake Of Reduced Water Results from Drinking Alkaline Water
Extracts from " Presentation At The Eight Annual International Symposium On man And HisEnvironment in Health And Disease" on February 24th 1990, at The Grand Kempinski Hotel,Dalls, Texas, USA by Dr. H. Hayashi, M.D. and Dr. M Kawamura, M.D., on : -
Since the introduction of alkaline ionic water in our clinic in 1985, wehave had the following interesting clinical experiences in the use ofthis type of water. By the use of alkaline ionic water for drinking andthe preparation of meals for our in-patients, we have noticed :-
Declines in blood sugar levels in diabetic patients.
Improvements in peripheral circulation in diabetic gangrene.
Declines in uric acid levels in patients with gout.
Improvements in liver function exams in hepatic disorders.
Improvements in gastroduodenal ulcer and prevention of theirrecurrences.
Improvements in hypertension and hypotension.
Improvements in allergic disorders such as asthma, urticaria, rhinites
Improvements in persistent diarrhoea which occurred aftergastrectomy.
Quicker improvements in post operative bower paralysis.
Improvements in serum bilirubin levels in new born babies.
By confirming clinical improvements, we have always observedchanges of stools of the patients, with the colour of their feaceschanging from black-brown colour to a brigher yellow-brown one, andthe odour of their feaces becoming almost negligible.
The number of patients complaining of constipation also decreasedmarkedly. The change of stool findings strongly suggests that alkalineionic water intake can decrease the production of putrefied orpathogenic metabolites.
Devices to produce reduced water were introduced into our clinic inMay 1985. Based on the clinical experiences obtained in the past 15years, it can be said that introduction of electrolyzed-reduced water for
drinking and cooking purpose for in-patients should be the veryprerequisite in our daily medical practices. Any dietary recipe cannotbe a scientific one if property of water is not taken by the patients isnot taken into consideration. The Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan announced in 1965 that the intake of reduced water is effective for restoration of intestinal flora metabolism.
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Clinical evaluation of alkaline ionized water for abdominal complaints: Placebo controlled double blind tests Alkaline Water and Stomach Complaints by Hirokazu Tashiro, Tetsuji Hokudo, Hiromi Ono, Yoshihide Fujiyama, Tadao Baba (NationalOhkura Hospital, Dept. of Gastroenterology; Institute of Clinical Research, Shiga University ofMedical Science, Second Dept. of Internal Medicine)
Effect of alkaline ionized water on abdominal complaints was evaluatedby placebo controlled double blind tests. Overall scores ofimprovement using alkaline ionized water marked higher than those of
placebo controlled group, and its effect proved to be significantlyhigher especially in slight symptoms of chronic diarrhoea andabdominal complaints in cases of general malaise. Alkaline ionizedwater group did not get interrupted in the course of the test, nor did itshow serious side effects nor abnormal test data. It was confirmed
that alkaline ionized water is safer and more effective than placebos.
Effect of alkaline ionized water on abdominal complaints was clinicallyexamined by double blind tests using clean water as placebo. Overallimprovement rate was higher for alkaline ionized water group thanplacebo group and the former proved to be significantly more effectivethan the other especially in cases of slight symptoms. Examiningimprovement rate for each case of chronic diarrhoea, constipation and
abdominal complaints, alkaline ionized water group turned out to bemore effective than placebo group for chronic diarrhoea, andabdominal complaints. The test was stopped in one case of chronicdiarrhoea, among placebo group due to exacerbation, whereas alkalineionized water group did not stop testing without serious side effects or
abnormal test data in all cases. It was confirmed that alkaline ionized water is more effective than clean water against chronic diarrhoea, abdominal complaints and overall improvement rate (relief of abdominal complaints) and safer than clean water. Introduction
Since the approval of alkaline ionized water electrolyzers byPharmaceutical Affairs Law in 1966 for its antacid effect and efficacy
against gastrointestinal disorders including hyperchylia, indigestion,abnormal gastrointestinal fermentation and chronic diarrhoea, theyhave been extensively used among patients. However, medical andscientific evaluation of their validity is not established. In our study,we examined clinical effect of alkaline ionized water on gastrointestinal
disorders across many symptoms in various facilities. Particularly, we
studied safety and usefulness of alkaline ionized water by doubleblindtests using clean water as a control group. Test subjects and methods
163 patients (34 men, 129 women, age 21 to 72, average 38.6 yearsold) of indigestion, abnormal gastrointestinal fermentation (withabnormal gas emission and rugitus) and abdominal complaints caused
by irregular dejection (chronic diarrhoea, or constipation) were testedas subjects with good informed consent. Placebo controlled doubleblind tests were conducted using alkaline ionized water and cleanwater at multiple facilities. An alkaline ionized water electrolyzer soldcommercially was installed with a pump driven calcium dispenser in
each of the subject homes. Tested alkaline ionized water had pH at 9.5and calcium concentration at 30ppm. Each subject in placebo groupused a water purifier that has the same appearance as the electrolyzerand produces clean water.
The tested equipment was randomly assigned by a controller whoscaled off the key code which was stored safely until the tests werecompleted and the seal was opened again.
Water samples were given to each patient in the amount of 200ml in
the morning with the total of 50OmI or more per day for a month. Before and after the tests, blood, urine and stool were tested and a logwas kept on the subjective symptoms, bowel movements andaccessory symptoms. After the tests, the results were analyzed basedon the log and the test data. Test Results
Among 163 tested subjects, alkaline ionized water group included 84and placebo group 79. Background factors such as gender, age andbasal disorders did not contribute to significant difference in theresults.
As to overall improvement rate of abdominal complaints, alkaline
ionized water group had 2 cases of outstanding improvement (2.5%),26 cases of fair improvement (32.1%), 36 cases of slight improvement(44.4%), 13 cases of no change (16%) and 4 cases of exacerbation(4.9%), whereas placebo group exhibited 4 (5.2%), 19 (24.7%), 27(35.1%), 25 (32.5%) and 2 cases (2.6%) for the same category. Comparison between alkaline ionized water and placebo groups did notreveal any significant difference at the level of 5% significance
according to the Wilcoxon test, although alkaline ionized water groupturned out to be significantly more effective than placebo group at thelevel of p value of 0.22.
Examining overall improvement rates by a 7, 2 test (with noadjustment for continuity) between the effective and noneffectivegroups, alkaline ionized water group had 64 (79%) of effective casesand 17 cases (21%) of non effective cases, whereas placebo group
had 50 (64.9%) and 27 (35.1%) cases respectively. The resultindicated that alkaline ionized water group was significantly moreeffective than placebo group at the level of p value of 0.0.48.
Looking only at 83 slight cases of abdominal complaints, overall
improvement rate for alkaline ionized water group
(45 cases) was composed of 11 cases (242%) of fair improvement, 22cases (48.9%) of slight improvement, 17 cases (44.7%) of no change
and 3 cases (6.7%) of exacerbation, whereas placebo group (38cases) had 3 (7.8%), 17 (44.7%), 17 (44.7%) and 1 (2.6%) cases forthe same category. Alkaline ionized water group was significantly moreeffective than placebo group according to the comparison between thegroups (p value = 0.033).
Basal symptoms were divided into chronic diarrhea, constipation andabdominal complaints (dyspepsia) and overall improvement rate wasevaluated for each of them to study effect of alkaline ionized water. In
case of chronic diarrhoea, alkaline ionized water group resulted in94.1% of effective cases and 5.9% of non effective cases. Placebogroup came up with 64.7% effective and 35.3% non effective. Theseresults indicate alkaline ionized water group proved to be significantlymore effective than placebo group. In case of slighter chronicdiarrhoea, comparison between groups revealed that alkaline ionized
water group is significantly more effective than placebo group(p=0.015). In case of constipation, alkaline ionized water groupconsisted of 80.5% of effective and 19.5% of non effective cases,whereas placebo group resulted in 73.3% effective and 26.3 noneffective. As to abdominal complaints (dyspepsia), alkaline ionizedwater group had 85.7% of effective and 14.3% non effective cases
while placebo group showed 47.1% and 62.9% respectively. Alkaline ionized water group proved to be significantly more effectivethan placebo group (p=0.025).
Since one case of chronic diarrhoea, in placebo group sawexacerbation, the test was stopped. There was no such cases inalkaline ionized water group. Fourteen cases of accessory symptoms, 8in alkaline ionized water group and 6 in placebo group, were observed,
none of which were serious. 31 out of 163 cases (16 in alkaline ionizedwater group, 15 in placebo group) exhibited fluctuation in test data,although alkaline ionized water group did not have any problematicfluctuations compared to placebo group. Two cases in placebo groupand one case in alkaline ionized water group have seen K value of
serum climb up and resume to normal value after retesting whichindicates the value changes were temporary. Conclusion
As a result of double blind clinical tests of alkaline ionized water andclean water, alkaline ionized water was proved to be more effectivethan clean water against chronic diarrhoea, abdominal complaints
(dyspepsia) and overall improvement rate (relief from abdominalcomplaints). Also, the safety of alkaline ionized water was confirmedwhich clinically verifies its usefulness.
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as variousInternet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not meant to cure ortreat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Physiological effects of alkaline ionized water: Effects on metabolites produced by intestinal fermentation Alkaline Water and Intestinal Fermentation
by Takashi Hayakawa, Chicko Tushiya, Hisanori Onoda, Hisayo Ohkouchi, Harul-~to Tsuge(Gifu University, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Food Science)
We have found that long-term ingestion of alkaline ionized water(AIW) reduces cecal fermentation in rats that were given highlyfermentable commercial diet (MF: Oriental Yeast Co., Ltd.). In this experiment, rats were fed MF and test water (tap water, AIWwith pH at 9 and 10) for about 3 months. Feces were collected on the
57th day, and the rats were dissected on the 88th day. The amount ofammonium in fresh feces and cecal contents as well as fecal free-glucose tended to drop down for the AIW group. In most cases, theamount of free-amino acids in cecal contents did not differ sign-icantly except for cysteine (decreased in AIW with pH at 10) andisoleucine (increased in AIW with pH at 10). Purpose of tests Alkaline ionized water electrolyzers were approved for manufacturing in 1965 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare as medical equipment to produce medical substances. Alkaline ionized water (AIW) produced by this equipment is known to be effective against gastrointestinal fermentation, chronic diarrhea, indigestion and hyperchylia as well as for controlling gastric acid.
*1 This is mainly based on efficacy of the official calcium hydroxide. *2 By giving AIW to rats for a comparatively long time under thecondition of extremely high level of intestinal fermentation, we havedemonstrated that AIW intake is effective for inhibition of intestinalfermentation when its level is high based on some test results whereAIW worked against cecal hypertrophy and for reduction in the amountof short-chain fatty acid that is the main product of fermentation.
*3 We have reported that this is caused by the synergy between
calcium level generally contained in AIW (about 50ppm) and the valueof pH, and that frequency of detecting some anaerobic bacteria tendsto be higher in alkaline ionized water groups than the other, althoughthe bacteria count in the intestine does not have significant difference.
Based on these results, we made a judgment that effect of taking AIWsupports part of inhibition mechanism against abnormal intestinalfermentation, which is one of the claims of efficacy that have beenattributed to alkaline ionized water electrolyzers. *4 On the other hand, under the dietary condition of low intestinalfermentation, AIW uptake does not seem to inhibit fermentation that
leads us to believe that effect of AIW uptake is characteristic of hyper-fermentation state. Metabolites produced by intestinal fermentationinclude indole and skatole in addition to organic acids such as short-chain fatty acid and lactic acid as well as toxic metabolites such asammonium, phenol and pcresol. We do not know how AIW uptakewould affect the production of these materials. In this experiment, we
have tested on ammonium production as explained in the followingsections. Testing methods
Four-week-old male Wistar/ST Clean rats were purchased from JapanSLC Co., Ltd. and were divided into 3 groups of 8 each afterpreliminary breeding. AIW of pH 9 and 10 was produced by anelectrolyzer Mineone ROYAL NDX3 1 OH by Omco Co., Ltd. This modelproduces AIW by electrolyzing water with calcium lactate added. On
the last day of testing, the rats were dissected under Nembutalanesthesia to take blood from the heart by a heparin-treated syringe. As to their organs, the small intestines, cecum and colon plus rectumwere taken out from each of them. The cecurn was weighed andcleaned with physiological saline after its contents were removed, and
the tissue weight was measured after wiping out moisture. Part ofcecal contents was measured its pH, and the rest was used to assayammonium concentration. The amount of ammonium contained infresh feces and cecal contents was measured by the Nessler methodafter collecting it in the extracted samples using Conway's micro-diffusion container. Fecal free-glucose was assayed by the oxygen
method after extraction by hot water. Analysis of free amino acidscontained in cecal contents was conducted by the Waters PicoTagamino acid analysis system. Test results and analyses
No difference was found in the rats' weight gain, water and feed intakeand feeding efficiency, nor was any particular distinction in appearanceidentified. The length of the small intestines and colon plus rectum
tended to decline in AIW groups. PH value of cecal contents was higherand the amount of fecal free-glucose tended to be lower in AIW groupsthan the control group. Since there was no difference in fecaldischarge itself, the amount of free-glucose discharged per day was ata low level. The amount of discharged free-glucose in feces is greaterwhen intestinal fermentation is more intensive, which indicates that
intestinal fermentation is more inhibited in AIW groups than thecontrol group. Ammonium concentration in cecal contents tends todrop down in AIW groups (Fig. 1). This trend was most distinctive incase of fresh feces of one of AIW groups with pH 10 (Fig.2) AIW
uptake was found to be inhibitory against ammonium production. Inorder to study dynamics of amino acids in large intestines, weexamined free amino acids in the cecal contents to find out thatcysteine level is low in AIW groups whereas isoleucine level is high inone of AIW groups with pH 10, although no significant difference was
Bibliography 1. "Verification of Alkaline Ionized Water" by Life Water Institute, Metamor Publishing Co.,1994, p.46*2. "Official Pharmaceutical Guidelines of Japan, Vol. IT' by Japan Public DocumentsAssociation, Hirokawa PublIshin Co., 1996*3. "Science and Technology of Functional Water" (part) by Takashi Hayakawa, HaruffitoTsuge, edited by Water Scienll cc Institute, 1999, pp.109-116*4. 'Tasics and Effective Use of Alkaline Ionized Water" by Takashi Hayakawa, Haruhito Tsuge,edited by Tetsuji Hc kudou, 25th General Assembly of Japan Medical Congress 'TunctionalWater in Medical Treatment", Administratio~ Offices, 1999, pp. 10- 11
The following information is sourced from various peer reviewed literature as well as various Internet sites. This information is for educational purposes only and is not ment to cure or treat any disease or illness. Consult your doctor for specialised medical advice. Effects of alkaline ionized water on formation & maintenance of osseous tissues Alkaline Water for Bone Health
by Rei Takahashi Zhenhua Zhang Yoshinori Itokawa(Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology and Tumor Biology, FukuiPrefectural University)
Effects of calcium alkaline ionized water on formation and maintenance
of osseous tissues in rats were examined. In the absence of calcium inthe diet, no apparent calcification was observed with only osteoidformation being prominent. Striking differences were found amonggroups that were given diets with 30% and 60% calcium. Rats raisedby calcium ionized water showed the least osteogenetic disturbance. Tibiae and humeri are more susceptible to calcium deficiency than
femora. Theses results may indicate that calcium in drinking watereffectively supplements osteogenesis in case of dietary calciumdeficiency. The mechanism involved in osteoid formation such asabsorption rate of calcium from the intestine and effects of calciumalkaline ionized drinking water on maintaining bone structure in theprocess of aging or under the condition of calcium deficiency is
Osteoporosis that has lately drawn public attention is defined as"conditions of bone brittleness caused by reduction in the amount ofbone frames and deterioration of osseous microstructure. " Abnormal calcium metabolism has been considered to be one of the
factors to contribute to this problem, which in turn is caused byinsufficient calcium take in, reduction in enteral absorption rate ofcalcium and increase in the amount of calcium in urinal discharge. Under normal conditions, bones absorb old bones by regularmetabolism through osteoid formation to maintain their strength andfunction as supporting structure. It is getting clear that remodeling of
bones at the tissue level goes through the process of activation,resorption, reversal, matrix synthesis and mineralization. Another important function of bones is storing minerals especially bycoordinating with intestines and kidneys to control calciumconcentration in the blood. When something happens to this osteometabolism, it results in abnormal morphological changes. Our
analyses have been focusing mostly on the changes in the amount ofbones to examine effects of calcium alkaline ionized water on thereaction system of osteo metabolism and its efficiency. Ibis time,however, we studied it further from the standpoint of histology. Inother words, we conducted comparative studies on morphological andkinetic changes of osteogenesis by testing alkaline ionized water, tap
water and solution of lactate on rats.
Three week old male Wistar rats were divided into 12 groups byconditions of feed and drinking water. Feeds were prepared with 0%,30%, 60% and 100% of normal amount of calcium and were given
freely. Three types of drinking water, tap water (city water, about6ppm of Ca), calcium lactate solution (Ca=40ppm) and alkaline ionizedwater (Ca =40ppm, pH=9, produced by an electrolyzer NDX 4 LMC byOmco OMC Co., Ltd.) were also given keely. Rats' weight, amount ofdrinking water and feed as well as the content of Ca in drinking water
were assayed every day. On the 19th and 25th days of testing,tetracycline hydrochloride was added to the feed for 48 hours so as tobring its concentration to 30mg/kg. On the 30th day, blood sampleswere taken under Nembutal anesthesia, and tibiae, humeri and femorawere taken out to make non decalcified samples. Their conditions ofosteoid formation and rotation were observed using Villanueva bone
Three groups that were given different types of drinking water and thesame amount of Ca in the feed were compared to find out nosignificant difference in the rate of weight gain and intakes of feed and
drinking water. Alkaline ionized water group had significantly greateramount of tibiae and humeri with higher concentration of calcium inthe bones.
The group of 0% calcium in the feed saw drastic increase in the
amount of osteoid. There was not much difference by types of drinkingwater. Almost no tetracycline was taken into tibiae and humeri,although a small amount was identified in ferora. As a result,osteogenesis went as far as osteoid formation, but it was likely that
decalcification has not happened yet, or most of newly formed boneswere absorbed.
As to the groups of 30% and 60% calcium in the feed, increase in thearea of tetracycline take in was more identifiable with higher clarity indescending order of alkaline ionized water, calcium lactate solution andtap water groups. Especially in case of tap water group, irregularityamong the areas of tetracycline take in was distinctive. The group of100% calcium in the feed saw some improvements in osteogenesis in
descending order of alkaline ionized water, calcium lactate solution andtap water. In any case, bone formation seemed to be in good conditionat near normal level.
Alkaline ionized water was regarded to be effective for improvementsof osteogenesis under the conditions of insufficient calcium in the feed. Also, the extent of dysosteogenesis differed by the region. That is,tibiae and humeri tend to have more significant dysosteogenesis thanfemora.
In addition, there is a possibility that osteo metabolism variesdepending on enteral absorption rate of calcium, adjustment ofdischarge from kidneys and functional adjustment of accessory thyroidin the presence of alkaline ionized water. We are now studying itsimpact on calcium concentration in the blood. We are also examining
whether it is possible to deter bone deterioration by testing on fastaging mouse models.
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Technology, Work Organisation and Absence ControlJoseph Lanfranchi (ERMES, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris 2))John Treble (University of Wales, Bangor)Studies of sick pay and absenteeism have traditionally treated absence as a worker-relatedphenomenon. There are good reasons to suppose, though, that firms’ incentives to controlabsenteeism are not uniform. This paper presents what we belie
Experimental Neurology 192 (2005) 73 – 78Continuous dopaminergic stimulation reduces risk of motor complicationsFrancesco Bibbiania, Lauren C. Costantinib, Raj Patelb, Thomas N. Chasea,*aExperimental Therapeutic Branch, Building 10, Room 5C103, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-1406, USAbTitan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., South San Francisco, CA